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CLASS S XI (>n BOOK f 5^ 





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Religious Society of Friends 



(Fifteenth and Race Streets.) 


Printed by direction of the Yearly Meeting. 




- 104 


- 107 


- 59 

Books, - 

- 65 


- 69 

Civil Government, 

- 54 

Conduct and Conver- 
sation, - - - 48 
Days and Times, - - 36 
Disownment, - - 105 
Family Visits, - - 34 
Gaming and Diversions, 46 
Intoxicants and Nar- 
cotics, - - - 44 
Introduction, - - 7 
Marriage, - - - 81 
Meeting Funds, - - 66 
Meetings for Discipline, 12 
Meetings for Worship, 10 
Membership, - - 31 
Members in Need, - 68 
Memorials, - - 109 
Ministers and Elders, 18 
Oaths, - - - 42 

Overseers, - - - 29 

Parents and Children, 51 

Particular Advices, - 71 

Plainness, - - - 38 
Procedure in Meetings 

for Discipline, - - 92 
Queries, - - - 76 
Queries for Meetings 
of Ministers and 
Elders, - - - 27 
Records, - - - 110 
Representative Com- 
mittee, - - 15 
Resignations, - - 103 
Schools, - - - 63 
Secret Societies, - 47 
The Gospel Ministry, 35 
The Scriptures, - - 53 
Trade, - - - 55 
Trusts and Titles to 

Property, - - - 67 

War, - - - - 40 

Wills, - - - - 62 

Yearly Meeting, - 9 

*«* See Index at close of book. 





It is held by the Religious Society of Friends 
that God endows every human being with a 
measure of His own Divine Spirit, by which he has 
revealed Himself to His children in all generations ; 
that this Spirit, which although in man, is not of 
man, is the manifestation in our human nature of 
the Eternal Word " which was in the beginning," 
and which was manifested without measure in the 
person of our Divine Master, Jesus Christ ; and 
that as we submit ourselves to the leadings of this 
Light of Christ in the soul, we are loosed from the 
bonds of self and sin, and enabled to live in con- 
formity with the will of our Heavenly Father. 

The Society early recognized that there were 
among its members different degrees of spiritual 
growth and religious experience, and that those 
whose lives had long been dedicated to the obedi- 
ent service of the Lord might nurture the growth of 
those younger in His service. In their engage- 
ment to meet together for the worship of God in 
spirit according to the direction of the Holy Law- 
giver, they were also exercised to have a tender 
care over each other, that all might be preserved in 
unity of faith and practice. 

To this end, therefore, and as an exterior hedge 
of preservation against the many temptations and 
dangers to which our situation in the world 
exposes us, advices have been issued and rules 
adopted from time to time by the Society. 

They found their inception in the impressions 
made upon concerned minds, and having been sub- 
mitted individually or through subordinate meet- 
ings to the judgment of the Yearly Meeting, they 
were adopted and issued by that body. 

Collections of these Rules and Advices, in manu- 
script, were formed by the Yearly Meeting as early 
as 1704, again in 17 19, and at different times later, 
notably in 1762 ; and in 1797 the compilation was 
issued in print. The book was added to and 
changed at various times. In 1892 it was concluded 
to revise the whole, and the revision having been 
adopted by the Yearly Meeting in 1894, now forms 
our Book of Discipline. 

[Note. — In the following pages, pronouns of the masculine 
gender include the feminine, and the singular number includes 
the plural in all consistent cases. 

The term Quarterly Meeting includes Half Year Meetings in 
consistent cases.] 

Our first Yearly Meeting was held at Bur- „. 

J *> # History of 

lington, in New Jersey, the thirty-first day 
of the Sixth month, 1681, O. S., for the 
provinces of Pennsylvania and New Jersey ; 
in 1685 ft was agreed that it should be held 
alternately at Burlington and Philadelphia; 
in 1755 the time of holding it was changed 
to the Ninth month ; in 1 760 it was concluded 
that it should be held at the same time at 
Philadelphia only ; in 1798 the time of hold- 
ing it was altered to the third Second-day in 
the Fourth month; in 1827 the time of 
holding it was changed to the second Second- 
day of the Fourth month ; and in 1838 it was 
agreed that it should be held the Second- 
day following the second First-day in the Fifth 
month, as it now is. 

The Yearly Meeting of Ministers and Ministers 
Elders is held on the Seventh-day of the and Elders ' 
week preceding. 


From the rise of our Religious Society, 
meetings for worship have been held. As 
the attendance of them is an expression of 
our allegiance to our Heavenly Father, and 
a means afforded for the renewal of our 
spiritual strength, we exhort all to a Chris- 
tian zeal and exercise in the performance of 
this reasonable service. 
Reverent As we are not capable of performing Divine 

recommended. worship in our own strength, we recommend 
a reverent waiting upon God in true silence, 
and retirement of mind, for a renewed sense 
of the inward power of his Spirit, whereby 
we are qualified to worship Him in an ac- 
ceptable manner. Let our faithfulness and 
sincerity herein appear by the humility, 
meekness, and circumspection of our lives 
and conversation, exemplifying the princi- 
ples of Truth as they were declared by Jesus 
^outhTo bT d an< ^ hi s disciples ; and we earnestly advise 
encouraged to that the children and youth of our Society, 

attend - i • i • i 11 r 1 • • 

be trained in a knowledge of this important 



duty, and encouraged to assemble regularly 
at the times appointed, for religious worship. 

It is recommended that Friends early Care to * hose 

J who neglect. 

extend care, in the spirit of restoring love, to 
members who neglect the attendance of our 

We would revive an exhortation of our 
Yearly Meeting held in 1694: 

14 Dear Friends, keep your meetings in 
the authority, wisdom, and power of Truth, To be held in 
and unity of the blessed Spirit, and endeavor f Tmth° n 
to keep out of all contention, personal re- 
flection, heat and passions. Let all be done 
in meekness, and the God of peace be with 


For the regular and effectual support of 
good order in the Society, besides the usual 
meetings for the purpose of Divine worship, 
there have been instituted meetings for Dis- 
cipline, which having from experience been 
found very beneficial, it is earnestly recom- 
mended that they be maintained in that au- 
thority wherein they were established. 
Where there is negligence concerning them, 
serious spiritual loss is the result. 
Order and These meetings, and their subordination 

subordination. . r ,, 

to one another, are as follows : rirst, Pre- 
parative Meetings ; which consist of the 
members of a particular meeting for worship, 
and are accountable to the Monthly Meet- 
ings : Second, Monthly Meetings ; each of 
which may consist of one or more Prepara- 
tive Meetings, and is accountable to the 
Quarterly Meeting : Third, Quarterly and 
Half-Year Meetings ; each of which consists 
of one or more Monthly Meetings, and is ac- 
countable to the Yearly Meeting : and Fourth, 



the Yearly Meeting ; which comprises the 

Any of these meetings may be held by Ma y beheld 

. J separately or 

men and women in separate session, or together. 

The holding of a Preparative Meeting is Reparative 

• •11 - . Meetings, 

not enjoined where its membership and when not en- 
that of the Monthly Meeting is the same. J ° ir 
In such cases business that would otherwise 
come before a Preparative Meeting shall be 
attended to by the Monthly Meeting. 

A Quarterly Meeting shall not be set up, Order in 
laid down, nor omitted, without the consent andTfying 
of the Yearly Meeting ; a Monthly Meet- down - 
ing without the consent of the Quarterly 
Meeting ; nor any Preparative or other es- 
tablished meeting for business or worship, 
until application to the Monthly Meeting has 
been made ; and when there approved, the 
consent of the Quarterly Meeting shall also 
be obtained. 

No meeting for worship, intended to con- Establishment 
sist of Friends belonging to two or more f or worsh^. 
monthly meetings, shall be set up, until the 
proposal shall have been offered to, and ap- 
proved by, those monthly meetings, and the 
consent of their respective Quarterly Meeting 
or meetings been obtained. When the meeting 


proposed is opened, it shall be attended by 
a few suitable Friends, deputed by each of 
the said Monthly Meetings. If at any time 
it is thought expedient that a Preparative 
Meeting should be held at the same place, 
the consent of the said Monthly and Quar- 
terly Meetings shall, in like manner, be 
applied for and obtained ; and the said Pre- 
parative Meeting shall be annexed to one 
or the other of those Monthly Meetings, 
as may be most likely to conduce to the 
benefit of the individuals who compose it, and 
to the advantage of the Society. 
Advice These meetings have distinct allotments 

attendance 3 , of service. Experience has shown that when 
they are attended in dedication of heart, 
with a sincere desire for help and edification, 
they are often seasons of Divine favor. 
Friends are affectionately desired and ex- 
horted to be diligent in the attendance of 
them, and, when met, humbly to seek to be 
clothed with the spirit of wisdom and charity. 
This will divest the mind of a dependence on 
our own strength and abilities, endue us with 
patience and condescension toward one 
another, and enable us to realize the truth of 
the declaration of Jesus : " One is your 
teacher, and all ye are brethren. "- 1 

1 Matthew 23 : 8. 


Thus in our several stations and move- 
ments, we shall witness a qualification to 
strengthen one another in that faith which 
works by love to the purifying of the heart. 



In order that the Yearly Meeting may be Manner of 

. . . . . appointment. 

properly represented when not in session, 
it is directed that each Quarterly Meeting 
produce annually, in its report to the Yearly 
Meeting, the names of four suitable Friends, 
to constitute together a Representative Com- 
mittee to be held and regulated according to 
the following rules : 

First Due notice of its meetings shall be Rules . 


given to the members. 

Second. No fewer than twelve members 
shall constitute a meeting capable of trans- 
acting business. 


Third. The said Committee may sit on 
its own adjournments, and order these, as 
well as the times of its stated meetings, ac- 
cording to the business before it. 

Fourth. The said Committee shall keep fair 
minutes of all its proceedings, and annually 
lay them before the Yearly Meeting. 

Services The services confided to this Committee 

confided to 

are, in general : 

First, To representee Yearly Meeting dur- 
ing its recess, and to act on its behalf in cases 
where the welfare of our religious Society 
may render it needful. It is not to interfere 
with any matter of faith or discipline. 

Second. To procure and distribute such 
books or pamphlets as may be a means of 
spreading the knowledge of our religious 
principles or testimonies ; and to advise or 
assist any of our members, on their own ap- 
plication, who may incline to publish any 
such manuscript or work as may tend to pro- 
mote the cause of Truth, or be beneficial to 
the Society. 

Third. To render advice and assistance to 
meetings, at their request, on subjects relat- 
ing to property, titles to lands, the renewal 


of trusts, and the application of public gifts Services 

. . . confided to 

and legacies. 

Fourth. To receive from the several 
Quarterly Meetings their accounts of suffer- 
ings, and also such memorials concerning 
deceased Friends as those meetings have 
concurred with ; that, when examined and 
approved, they may be laid before the Yearly 
Meeting, or otherwise be returned to the 
respective Quarterly Meetings for revision 
or correction. 

Fifth. To extend such advice and assist- 
ance to any individuals under suffering for 
our testimonies, as their cases may require ; 
and, if necessary, to apply to the govern- 
ment, or to persons in authority, on their be- 

Sixth. To correspond with representative 
bodies of other Yearly Meetings, as occa- 
sion may require, on subjects of general in- 
terest to the Society. 

Although none are members of the Rep- 
resentative Committee but such as are ap- 
pointed in the manner herein provided, yet G f other 
other Friends, at the discretion of said Com- Friends 


mittee, may be permitted to attend when 
they feel a concern to do so. 
Supplying When a vacancy occurs by death or other- 

wise among the members of the Representa- 
tive Committee appointed by a Quarterly 
Meeting, such Meeting should take care to 
supply it by a new appointment. 



Character of Friends were gathered from the estab- 

ministry. li s hed churches and a formal service, to own 

a living, baptizing gospel ministry free to 

all, agreeably to the apostolic injunction : 

" Be sober unto prayer : 

according as each hath received a gift, 
ministering it among yourselves, as good 
stewards of the manifold grace of God; if any 
man speaketh, speaking as it were oracles of 
God ; if any man ministereth, ministering as 


of the strength which God supplied}." x So 
the ministers were led frequently to meet 
together to encourage and strengthen each 
other in a knowledge of the duties they 
owed to God and man, that they might more 
fully and faithfully minister the Word of life. 

As these meetings were found to be bene- Elders - 
ficial, a concern arose for Monthly Meetings 
to appoint, as elders, some judicious, con- 
cerned Friends to have a care for the con- 
ducting of our religious meetings, and to be 
companions and counsellors to the ministers, 
as tender, loving, spiritual fathers and Duties of 
mothers, especially to those young in the eis ' 
ministry, inciting to a frequent reading of 
the Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments, and to a dependence on Divine aid 
for the right understanding of them; en- 
couraging all to abide in a simple and 
patient submission to the will of God, and to 
keep down to the openings of the Divine love 
and life in themselves, that they may experi- 
ence a growth in their gifts, and be preserved 
from withholding more than is meet, or 
extending their communications beyond the 
life and power of Truth. 

1 1. Peter 4 : 7, 10, 11. 



Elders, how 

once in four 
years, or 

to be 


It is recommended that each Monthly 
Meeting choose four or more Friends to 
serve as elders, who shall, with the minis- 
ters if any, compose a meeting to be denom- 
inated a Preparative Meeting of Ministers 
and Elders ; taking care that those chosen 
for that service be prudent, discreet Friends, 
who will carefully discharge the trust con- 
fided to them. 

It is directed that a committee be appoint- 
ed once in four years, or oftener if the 
meeting shall consider it desirable or 
necessary, to bring forward the names of 
suitable Friends to serve as elders ; bearing 
in mind that the qualifications required are 
not found amongst older Friends only, but 
occur, as well, among the middle-aged and 
young ; it being distinctly understood that 
whether any change is made or not, the 
committee shall report all the names to the 
Monthly Meeting for its judgment, and those 
appointed shall serve until their successors 
are duly appointed or they otherwise relieved. 

Information of all appointments of elders 
shall be transmitted by minute to the Quar- 
terly and Preparative Meetings of Ministers 
and Elders. 


Ministers and elders are affectionately To have care 
desired to exercise a watchful care over the ^ er member 
membership for its preservation in the way 
of righteousness, always approving them- 
selves by their good examples in conversa- 
tion and conduct to be such as endeavor 
faithfully to maintain the testimonies of 

The ministers and elders of each Monthly p reparat i ve 
Meeting- are to meet once in three months, Meeting of 

° , Ministers and 

at such time and place as the Monthly Eiders. 
Meeting may direct, in the capacity of a 
Preparative Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders ; when, after a time of solid retire- 
ment, the Queries addressed to such meet- Queries to be 
ings are to be read and considered, and dis- answered, 
tinct answers made to them in writing, which, etc ' 
when signed by the clerk, are to be forwarded 
to the ensuing Quarterly Meeting of Minis- 
ters and Elders, to attend which as repre- 
sentatives two or more Friends should be ^10^" 
appointed. If, upon inquiry, any deficiency a PP ointed - 
appear, care should be taken that it is 

And in the said Quarterly Meeting the 
queries are also to be read, with the answers Q uerie V n 

J Quarterly 

from the several Preparative Meetings, and Meeting, 
the state of the members carefully consid- 


Answers to be ? re ^ that, w ^ ere occasion requires, advice 
signed and anc j counsel may be extended ; and once a 

forwarded. ' 

year these answers, comprised in a written 
summary and signed by the clerk, are to be 
forwarded to the Yearly Meeting of Minis- 
ters and Elders, to attend which four or 
more representatives should be appointed. 
In this meeting also the queries are to be 
read, with the answers from the several 
Quarterly Meetings, and duly considered ; 
and if deemed necessary, suitable advice and 
counsel may be issued to the subordinate 
Not to inter- None of the said meetings of Ministers 
fere with anc j Elders are in anvwise to interfere with 

Meetings lor * 

Discipline, the business of any meeting for discipline ; 
nor is the Yearly Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders to allow its adjournments to interfere 
with the sittings of the Yearly Meeting for 
Manner of When any Friend has frequently appeared 

acknowiedg- j n our religious meetings as a minister, and 

ing ministers. ° # ° 

the Preparative Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders apprehends that it is seasonable, 
the subject should be forwarded by minute 
to the Monthly Meeting of which he is 
a member, for its attention and judgment; 
and if that meeting be united in believing 


that a gift in the ministry has been commit- 
ted to him, a minute expressive thereof 
should be forwarded to the Quarterly Meet- 
ing of Ministers and Elders, where the 
case should be carefully considered, and if 
the judgment of the Monthly Meeting be 
concurred in, information thereof should be 
sent by minute to the Monthly Meeting 
of which he is a member, and to the Prepar- 
ative Meeting of Ministers and Elders there- 
of, by its representatives. Until the approval 
of the Quarterly Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders has been thus obtained, such Friend 
is not at liberty to attend any of their meet- 
ings, or travel abroad as a minister. 

When an acknowledged minister believes Religious 
it right to make a religious visit and appoint ]?^ s b y ond 
meetings beyond the limits of the Quarterly Quarterly 

. . Meeting. 

Meeting to which he belongs, the concern is 
to be opened in the Monthly Meeting (both 
men's and women's branches when held sep- 
arately) for consideration and judgment, and 
if approved a suitable minute expressive Minute to be 
thereof signed by the clerk or clerks should gl 
be given. 

If the concern is to attend a Yearly or Toattenda 
Quarterly Meeting, and such meetings as Yearl .y 

. . . 7 Meeting, etc. 

may lie in the way going and returning, a 


certificate of the Monthly Meeting signed 
by the clerk or clerks, will be sufficient. 

Religious -r> • r i • • • i 

visits beyond i>ut if the concern is to visit and appoint 
S y ° f the meetings beyond the limits of Philadelphia 
Meeting. Yearly Meeting, and the approbation of the 
Monthly Meeting be obtained, the concern 
Quart°e V rS° f should also be brought before the Quarterly 
Meeting to be Meeting- for its consideration, and, if united 

obtained. t # ° 

with, its endorsement. 

When a minister is set at liberty to make 
a religious visit within the limits of the 
Yearly Meeting, the Monthly Meeting of 
visits' to be which he is a member should extend care 
necessary. that the service be not hindered, or the Friend 
oppressed for means to meet the necessary 
expenses thereof; and when the concern is 
united with, and a minute endorsed by the 
Quarterly Meeting, a like care should rest 
with it. 

If the concern is to go beyond the sea, or 
on a very extended religious visit on this 
visit?b e U yond continent, after the approval and certificates 
sea, etc. Q f ^ M^^iy and Quarterly Meetings have 
been obtained, the Friend so concerned 
should lay his prospect before the Yearly 
Meeting of Ministers and Elders, for its con- 
sideration, and if it be there united with, a 
certificate to that effect should be signed by 


the clerk and forwarded to the Yearly Meet- 
ing for Discipline. If the concern be there 
approved the certificate should be endorsed 
by the clerks. The Friend is then at liberty Committee to 
to proceed, and a committee should be ap- s ive neces " 

r ' x sary care. 

pointed by the Yearly Meeting to take fur- 
ther care, and if necessary to draw from its 
funds to enable him to perform the service 
for which he was liberated. 

When a Friend has been liberated to when service 
make a religious visit, and the service has is completed, 

£> J minute to be 

been accomplished, the meetings that ap- returned. 
proved thereof should be so informed and 
the certificates returned to the respective 
meetings from which they were issued, with- 
out unnecessary delay. 

As the occasion of our religious meetings 
is solemn, a care should ever be maintained 0] u 
to guard against anything that tends to dis- m 
order, or confusion therein ; therefore if any 
feel aught against what is publicly delivered, 
they should speak of it to the person pri- 
vately and kindly ; and if anyone shall openly 
oppose an acknowledged minister, or mani- 
fest a dislike to such while thus engaged, let 
him be speedily admonished in brotherly 

pposition to 


Treatment of If a minister at any time by negligence, 
those who unfaithfulness, or otherwise, be thought by 

have lost # # . 

their service, the Preparative Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders where such Friend belongs, to have 
lost his service in that station, it is ad- 
vised that a timely and tender care be ex- 
tended according to gospel order ; first by the 
Friends feeling the concern, and then by the 
Preparative Meeting of Ministers and Elders 
to which he may belong. If these labors 
prove unavailing, report of the case should 
be made by that meeting to the Quarterly 
Meeting of Ministers and Elders, and there 
a few Friends should be appointed to assist 
the said Preparative Meeting in a further 
extension of labor. If this also prove un- 
availing, and by the report thereof to the 
said Quarterly Meeting, it appears that the 
said Preparative Meeting has fully discharged 
its duty to the individual, the Quarterly 
Meeting, when clear to do so, shall trans- 
mit the case to the Monthly Meeting for 
Discipline of which the party is a member, 
and leave it under its care ; and he shall, from 
that time, refrain from attending meetings 
of Ministers and Elders unless he be again 
acknowledged as at first. 


Of the following four queries, for the use whenand 
of the Meetings of Ministers and Elders, where to be 

1 1 T • 1 rea< ^ an< ^ 

the first three are to be read and distinctly answered. 
answered in writing three times a year, by 
each Preparative Meeting of that kind, to 
its respective Quarterly Meeting ; and the 
four queries are to be in like manner 
read and answered, by the Preparative to 
their Quarterly Meetings next preceding the 
Yearly Meeting of Ministers and Elders ; 
that the Quarterly Meetings may be enabled 
to transmit a clear and distinct statement of 
those answers to that meeting. 

First Query. Are Ministers and Elders Queries. 
careful to attend meetings for Divine wor- 
ship, and for discipline, encouraging their 
families and others to this important duty ? 

Second Query. Are Ministers sound in 
word and doctrine ; careful to minister in the 
ability which God gives ? 



( ^nes. Third Query. Are the lives and conversa- 

tion of Ministers and Elders clean and blame- 
less amongst men ? Are they in unity with 
one another, and with the meeting to which 
they belong, harmoniously laboring for the 
Truth ? 

Fourth Query. Are they good examples 
in uprightness, temperance and moderation ; 
and careful to train up their families in 
plainness of dress and simplicity of manners, 
becoming our religious profession ? 

It is earnestly and affectionately recom- 

Mimsters and ' . 

Eiders to mended that Ministers and Elders watch 
on e C another over one another for good, and help those 
for good. w j 1Q are r jgh t iy exercised in the ministry; 
discouraging such as run into words, without 
life and power ; advising against affectation 
of tones and gestures, and everything that 
would hurt their service ; yet encouraging 
the humble, careful traveller. And let all 
dwell in that which gives ability to labor 
successfully in the church of Christ ; so will 
they show forth the fruits of the doctrine 
which they deliver to others, being examples 
to their brethren in word, in conversation, in 
charity, in spirit, in faith, and in purity. 


It is directed that in every Monthly Meet- To be 
ing a proper number of faithful and judicious a PP omte ■ 
men and women be appointed to the station 
of overseers. Where a Monthly Meeting 
consists of two or more Preparative Meetings 
each of them should be represented. 

It is the duty of the overseers to exercise Duties of. 
a vigilant and tender care over their fellow 
members ; and if anything repugnant to the 
harmony and good order of the Society ap- 
pears among them, it should be seasonably 
attended to. To prevent the introduction 
of all unnecessary and premature com- 
plaints to meetings for discipline, it is ad- 
advised that if any member shall have cause 
of complaint against another, it be men- J^™]^ 1 "^ to 
tioned to the overseers, who are to see overseers. 
that the person complained of has been 
treated with according to Gospel order, 1 pre- 
viously to the case being reported to the 
Preparative or Monthly Meeting. It is earn- 
estly desired that in dealing with any, over- 

^Matthew 18 : 15. 




Duties of, 



seers do it in the spirit of meekness and love, 
patiently endeavoring to instruct and advise 
them ; informing the Preparative Meeting 
when the labor proves ineffectual, or where 
the nature of the case requires it, that, if need- 
ful, the case may be laid before the Monthly 
Meeting, notice of which should be given to 
the party when it can conveniently be done. 
ngestobe It is recommended to Monthly Meetings, 
that a committee be appointed once in 
three years, or as much oftener as the case 
may require, to consider the propriety of 
changing the overseers, and bringing forward 
in the improvement of their gifts, other 
Friends on whom a concern for the welfare 
of the Society rests. 

It is further advised that the overseers of 
a Monthly Meeting meet frequently to- 
gether, at least once in three months, to 
consider carefully the welfare of the flock, 
and to strengthen, encourage and aid each 
other in the faithful performance of their 
responsible duties. 

And we tenderly exhort all our members 
who may be rightly called into this or any 
other service of the church, not hastily to ex- 
cuse themselves therefrom, but solidly to 
ponder the weighty advice of the apostle : 

To meet 

to those 
called into 


" Tend the flock of God which is among you, 
exercising the oversight, not of constraint, 
but willingly, according unto God ; nor yet 
for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind ; neither 
as lording it over the charge allotted to you, 
but making yourselves ensamples to the 
flock. And when the chief Shepherd shall 
be manifested, ye shall receive the crown of 
glory that fadeth not away." l 


Children whose parents are both members Birthright 
of our Religious Society are, by birthright, members - 
members also, and are to be recorded as such ; 
where one parent only is a member their 
children shall not have a right of member- on< ! p ^enta 
ship unless application for their admission is member - 
made either by themselves or by their parent, 
parents, or guardian, on their behalf, and the Record of 
Monthly Meeting applied to, admits them or whos^parents 
any of them in the usual order. It is directed a ;~ e ™ embers 

J t of different 

that children of parents belonging- to different Monthly 

r fe ** Meetings. 

l I. Peter 5: 2, 3, 4. 


Monthly Meetings of Friends shall be consid- 
ered members of the jMonthly Meeting of 
which the father is a member ; and the rec- 
ord of their birth shall be made in that 
Monthly Meeting. 
Order in It is directed that the following order be 

for P membCT- observed respecting persons who desire ad- 
ship- mission into membership ; that application 
be made to the overseers, who, when they 
are satisfied, are to lay it before men's or 
women's Preparative Meeting, as the case 
may be, when they are not held together ; 
and when there approved, the case should 
be laid before the Monthly Meeting, which 
meeting shall appoint some suitable Friends 
to inquire into the person's life and conver- 
sation, and also to take an opportunity for a 
serious conference with him in order the 
better to understand whether the motives for 
such request be sincere, and report their 
sense of the person's fitness to become a 
member ; and when the meeting is satisfied, a 
minute should be made signifying the accep- 
tance of such into membership, and appointing 
one or more Friends to acquaint the person 
thereof, and invite his attendance at our 
meetings for discipline. 


It is earnestly recommended that on every consideration 
application of persons to be received into t ^ ^ a " 
membership, Monthly Meetings be deep and membership. 
weighty in their deliberations and in reach-, 
ing a conclusion, the neglect of such caution 
having often been injurious both to the in- 
dividual and to the Society ; but, when 
united in believing that the applicants are 
convinced of the truth of our religious prin- 
ciples and in a good degree subject to the 
Divine Witness in their own hearts, man- 
ifested by a circumspect life and conduct, 
said meetings are at liberty to receive such 
into membership, without respect to nation ^spect^o 
or color. na J ion or 


As there are those not in membership 
with any religious organization who frequent- 
ly attend our meetings for worship, who are Loving 

, . i r 1 • i • i attention to 

serious and thoughtful in their deportment non-members, 
and who manifest an interest in our princi- 
ples and testimonies, who might with profit 
to themselves and the meeting become 
members of our Religious Society, it is rec- 
ommended that overseers and other con- 
cerned Friends give loving attention to such, 
with a view to their becoming members. 


Such concerns 
to be 

Approval of 

As the visiting of Friends in their families, 
in the openings of Heavenly Wisdom, is a 
service which hath often been blessed to the 
minds of the visitors and visited, it is advised 
that concerns of this nature be tenderly cher- 
ished, and those who are rightly exercised 
therein encouraged to move forward in due 
season and in humble dependence on the 
Shepherd of Israel, who not only puts His 
own forth, but goes before and enriches all 
who are faithful to His appointments with 
the reward of sweet comfort and solid 
peace. When a Friend has a religious con- 
cern to visit the families belonging to any 
particular meeting or meetings, it should be 
opened in his Monthly Meeting for concur- 
rence and approval, when, if the concern is 
united with and the Friend set at liberty to 
perform the same, the matter should be laid 
before the meeting- the members of which it 
is proposed to visit, and if there approved, 
way should be opened for the accomplish- 
ment of the visits. 



Let us keep in remembrance that it is Worshi and 
under the immediate teaching- and influence ministry 

° under the lm- 

of the Holy Spirit that all acceptable worship mediate 
is performed, and all true Gospel Ministry influence o^ 
supplied. This pure and powerful influ- gp^ oly 
ence, in vessels sanctified and prepared by 
the Divine hand, is the essential qualification 
to that work, and, as the gift is Divine, 
the service is to be discharged freely and 
faithfully without any view to reward from 

One of the earliest testimonies developed Testimony 
in the religious experience of Friends was against 

°, x professional 

against a ministry founded on human author- ministry. 
ity, relying for its qualifications on human 
abilities or learning, and maintained by pe- 
cuniary support. 

In great love and tenderness we exhort _, _ 

m a Exhortation 

those of our members who are in the habit to observe 
of attending places of worship where this testimony, 
principle is violated, to a closer attention and 
greater obedience to this important testimony, 
desiring them to remember that they owe 



their allegiance to the Society of which they 
are members, and that by indifference to its 
testimonies and absence from its meetings 
they deprive it of the strength which is its 


, r Friends have ever had a testimony against 

Ground of # • 1 1 

our testimony, formal worship, being convinced by the pre- 
cepts of our Lord Jesus Christ, by the testi- 
monies of his Apostles, and by individual 
experience, that the worship and prayers 
which God accepts are such only as are 
produced by the influence and assistance 
of his Holy Spirit. We cannot therefore 
consistently unite with any in the observance 
of public fasts, feasts, and what they term 
holy days ; or such injunctions and forms as 
are devised in man's will for Divine worship. 
The dispensation to which outward observ- 
ances were peculiar having long since given 
place to the spiritual dispensation of the 
gospel, we believe the fast to which we are 
now called is not the bowing of the head 
like a bulrush for a day, but an universal 


and continual fasting and refraining from 
everything which has a tendency to defile the 
soul, and unfit it for becoming the temple of 
the Holy Spirit ; according to the injunctions 
of Christ to his primitive disciples : "If any 
man would come after me, let him deny him- 
self, and take up his cross daily, and follow 
me :" l "Watch ye at every season, making 
supplication, that ye may prevail to escape 
all these things that shall come to pass, and 
to stand before the Son of man." 2 That 
the primitive believers saw an end to these 
shadows of good things, by coming to Him 
in whom all figures and shadows end, is 
evident by the words of the apostle Paul : 
"For Christ is the end of the law unto 
righteousness to every one that believeth." 3 
" But now hath he obtained a ministry the 
more excellent, by how much also he is 
the mediator of a better covenant, which hath 
been enacted upon better promises." 4 "Let 
no man therefore judge you in meat, or 
in drink, or in respect of a feast day or 
a new moon or a sabbath day : which 
are a shadow of the things to come ; but 
the body is Christ's." 5 And the same 

1 Luke 9 : 23. 2 Luke 21 : 36. 3 Romans 10 : 4. 

4 Hebrews 8:6. 5 Colossians 2 : 16, 17. 


apostle thus expostulated with some who 
had fallen from ,the true faith in these re- 
spects : " But now that ye have come to 
know God . . . how turn ye back again to 
the weak and beggarly rudiments, whereun- 
to ye desire to be in bondage over again ? 
Ye observe days, and months, and seasons, 
and years. I am afraid of you, lest by any 
means I have bestowed labour upon you in 
vain. • 


Plainness and The Spirit of Truth which led our early 
simplicity Friends to lay aside things unbecoming the 
Gospel of Christ still leads in the same path 
all who submit to its guidance ; we therefore 
earnestly encourage all Friends to watch 
over themselves in this respect, and seriously 
to consider the plainness and simplicity 
which the Gospel enjoins, manifesting it in 
their conversation, apparel, furniture, build- 
ings, salutation, and manner of living, exer- 

1 Galatians 4 : 9, 10, 11. 


cising plainness of speech without .respect of 
persons in all their converse among men, not 
balking their testimony by varying their 
language according to their company. 

We tenderly advise that Friends avoid im- i mmo dera- 
moderation in the use of lawful things, which [\ on ln la ™ ful 

o ' things to be 

though innocent in themselves may thereby avoided. 
become hurtful ; and that they endeavor to 
maintain a consistent bearing as members of 
the Religious Society of Friends in their busi- Consistent 
ness relations, as well as in every other walk business 111 
in life, remembering that to uphold the relatlons - 
standard of simplicity as shown to them, our 
forefathers patiently suffered long imprison- 
ments and great persecutions ; being con- 
vinced that it was their duty thus to bear a 
testimony against the vain spirit of the world. 

The example of our blessed Saviour, his 
immediate followers, and virtuous and holy 
men in all ages, ought to make a due impres- 
sion on every considerate mind, and espec- 
ially on such as have the advantage of a 
guarded education. 

We desire that our members may so real- Exhortation 
ize the saving power of the grace of God to sobriety of 
that they will be enabled to deny all worldly 
allurements, and to live soberly, righteously, 
and godly in this"present world, that they may 

40 WAR. 

adorn the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ 
in all things ; so may they feel his blessing 
and be instrumental in his hand for the 
good of others. 


Faithful Friends are exhorted to adhere faithfully 

testimony to J 

be maintained. to our ancient testimony against wars and 
fightings, and in no way to unite with any 
warlike measures, either offensive or defen- 
sive : that by the inoffensiveness of our con- 
duct we may convincingly demonstrate our- 
selves to be subjects of the Messiah's peace- 
ful reign, and be instrumental in the promo- 
tion thereof toward its desired completion 
when, according to ancient prophecy, ''the 
earth shall be filled with the knowledge of 
the glory of the Lord as the waters cover the 
sea," 1 and its inhabitants shall learn war no 

We fervently recommend to the deep at- 
tention of all our members that they be re- 

1 Habakkuk 2 : 14. 

WAR. 41 

ligiously guarded against approving of or Caution 
participating in military operations, paying ^ij 1 ^ 41 mg 
taxes levied for the express purpose of war, °P eratlons - 
or assisting in conveying military stores : 
and that they labor to experience a settle- 
ment on the sure foundation of unchange- 
able truth, whereby through the prevalence of 
Christian love and good will to man we may 
demonstrate that the kingdom we seek is not 
of this world, but a kingdom and govern- 
ment whose subjects are free indeed, re- 
deemed from those captivating lusts whence 
come wars and fightings. 

A living concern for the advancement of 
the peaceable kingdom of Christ continuing- . ., 

1 £> «-> Avoidance of 

with us, a fervent desire prevails that the trade or 


members of our Religious Society should promotive of 
carefully avoid engaging in any trade or busi- war " 
ness promotive of w^ar, or in any way shar- 
ing or participating in the spoils of war ; that 
through close attention to the monitions of 
Divine grace they may be preserved in a 
conduct consistent with our holy profession ; 
not at all doubting that He who is the source 
of all wisdom and power will continue to 
carry on His blessed cause of peace in 
the earth. 

4 2 






Friends are recommended to use their in- 
fluence in favor of arbitration as a means of 
settling differences between nations. 

We earnestly desire that capital punish- 
ment shall cease, and advise our members to 
bear a faithful testimony in this direction. 

to the 

of the 


Our members are exhorted faithfully to 
maintain our Christian testimony against the 
burden, administration, and imposition of 
oaths, according to the express command of 
Jesus: "I say unto you, Swear not at all; 
neither by the heaven, for it is the throne of 
God ; nor by the earth, for it is the foot-stool 
of his feet ; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the 
city of the great King. Neither shalt thou 
swear by thy head, for thou canst not make 
one hair white or black. But let your speech 
be, Yea, yea ; Nay, nay ; and whatsoever 


is more than these is of evil." ! And also 
according to the injunction of the apostle 
James : " But above all things, my breth- 
ren, swear not, neither by the heaven, nor 
by the earth, nor by any other oath : but let 
your yea be yea, and your nay, nay ; that ye 
fall not under judgment." 2 

Friends in all places are exhorted carefully Avoidance of 
to avoid electing or promoting their brethren stat J? ns 

or o tending to 

to such stations in civil government as may violation of 

, . , , r . t . testimony. 

subject them to the temptation of violating 
this testimony ; and where any members 
show an inclination or desire to solicit or 
accept such offices, timely care should be 
taken to caution them against it. In the 
execution of instruments of writing re- Attesting 
quiring witnesses, it is recommended that p SP ers ^ y 

a ° amrmation. 

Friends endeavor to procure such persons 
for this purpose as will attest the same by 

1 Matthew 5 : 34, 35, 36, 37. 2 James 5 : 12. 


Advice \y E earnestly and lovingly advise our 

against use of. * ° J 

members to abstain from the use of all intox- 
icants, either as a drink or in the preparation 
of food, and to use their influence to induce 
others to do likewise; to avoid frequenting 

Avoidance of t. © 

places where places where such drinks are sold, and gath- 
erings wherein they are likely to give coun- 
tenance to their use ; that they do not en- 
gage either in the manufacture, sale, impor- 

i r n manufao ge tation, or distillation of any alcoholic liquors, 

ture, sale, etc. un less it be for medicinal purposes, or use in 
the arts ; and that they abstain from renting 
their property or furnishing any material for 

Not to rent a purpose whereby our testimony against 

properties . . t • i -n i • i i i • 

for, etc. intoxicating drinks will be violated, or doing 
aught that will in any way compromise this 

Treatment of \{ an y member become addicted to the 

those who vio- ; 

late the testi- use of intoxicants, and uphold his course, 
or sign applications for licenses to sell the 
same, rent his property for such purpose, 
or engage in the business in violation of 



our testimony, it should concern the Monthly 
Meeting to which such person belongs, ten- 
derly to advise with him as to his course, 
and if after earnest labor he still continues 
in the practice, the meeting may testify its 
disunity with him. 

As the 'granting of licenses to sell intox- Advice 

* , c against 

icants is contrary to the best interests ot so- license 
ciety, Friends are earnestly entreated to bear s y stem - 
a faithful testimony, by precept and example, 
against a system which gives to individuals 
the sanction of government to engage in 
such a business. 

As the use of tobacco is injurious in its Advice 

rr , -- . . against use of 

ertects, especially upon the young, it is earn- tobacco. 
estly advised that Friends abstain, and 
encourage their children and those under 
their care to abstain, from the use of this 
narcotic in any of its various forms ; and 
also that Friends shall not engage in its cul- 
tivation, manufacture or sale. 

Realizing that danger attends the use caution as 
of all intoxicants, narcotics and opiates, ^ e ^dne' aS 
Friends are advised to be cautious in their 
use as medicine, since the appetite acquired 
grows with the indulgence. 


As our time passeth swiftly away, and 
our delight ought to be in the law of the 
Lord, we tenderly entreat all to submit to its 
restraining influence, which if lived under 
will lead us to recognize and avoid the great 
temptations and immorality surrounding the 
stage, the corrupt associations and debasing 
influences of horse-racing, and of lotteries, 
wagering, or any other species of gambling. 

It is earnestly advised that a watchful care 
be exercised over our members, to call them 
away from these things to that purity of life 
which is essential to their well-being. 



Under a tender concern for the preserva- caution 
tion of our members in that purity and a § ainst - 
simplicity which become our Christian pro- 
fession, we earnestly caution them against 
connecting themselves with societies requir- 
ing of their members a pledge of secrecy. 
These frequently draw their members away 
from their families and their business into 
places and practices inimical to their best 
interests, and may also lessen their interest 
in their religious meetings. The convivial 
meetings of some of these societies, their 
ostentatious processions, and high sounding 
titles, are inconsistent with our religious 
profession. Our Divine Master encouraged 
his disciples to stand as a city set upon a 
hill, which could not be hid. They were to 
let their light shine before men, that others 
seeing their good works, might glorify our 
Father who is in Heaven. Overseers and 0verseers > 

etc., to 

other concerned Friends are advised to ex- extend care. 
tend timely caution and admonition to all 
cases where any of our members have joined 
such societies, and may be in danger of thus 
being led astray by them. 




against tale- 
bearing and 

Whatever exercises we may meet with on 
account of a faithful testimony to the Truth, 
in all godliness of conversation, and to the 
end that we may not faint in our minds, let 
us consider the Captain of our salvation, who 
endured the contradiction of sinners, bearing 
his cross and despising the shame, that fol- 
lowing him and under his banner fighting the 
good fight of faith, we may finally obtain the 
crown of righteousness which fadeth not 

Friends are earnestly exhorted to main- 
tain a strict watch over themselves and each 
other against the subtle and mischievous 
spirit of tale-bearing and detraction, the 
manifest tendency of which is to lay waste 
the unity of the body by sowing the seeds of 
disesteem, strife and discord amono; brethren 
and neighbors, as well as to unfit those who 
either propagate or listen to evil reports for 
being of that service to the person reflected 
upon which they might be if the order pre- 



scribed by our blessed Lord to his church 
was strictly observed, viz. : "If thy brother 
sin against thee, go show him his fault 
between thee and him alone ; if he hear thee, 
thou hast gained thy brother." 1 

It is advised that when there is any appear- Caution 
ance of dissension and variance, or of un- tensions, 
kind resentment and shyness among our 
members, the parties be timely and tenderly 
apprised of the danger to which they thereby 
expose both themselves and others, and ear- 
nestly exhorted to the mutual condescension 
and forgiveness becoming Christ's followers, 
whose mission should be the promotion of 
peace on earth and good-will amongst men. 

Members of our Religious Society are _ . 

& J Caution 

advised against applying to those who by any against 
art or skill whatsoever pretend to a knowl- 
edge of future events, of hidden transactions, 
or of the place where things lost or stolen 
may be found ; and shall any of our members 
pursue such a course or make pretence to 
any such art or skill they should receive the 
attention of the Monthly Meeting. 

If any of our members be guilty of im- Disorderly 

, Til i r ' conduct, etc. 

moral or disorderly conduct, ol notorious to have care, 
crimes, or of such unseemly practices as 

1 Matthew 18 : 15. 


shall occasion public scandal, they shall be 
visited or labored with by the overseers or 
other concerned Friends to endeavor to con- 
vince them of their serious deviation from 
our good order, and such offenders, if brought 
to a sense of their error, ought without 
improper delay to remove the cause of 
offence, as far as they have ability, and 
endeavor to order their lives consistently 
with our holy profession. 
Blasphemy. If any one in membership with us blas- 
pheme, or speak profanely of Almighty God, 
Christ Jesus, or the Holy Spirit, or shall 
deny the divinity of Christ, the immediate 
revelation of the Holy Spirit, or the inspir- 
ation of the Scriptures, he ought to be 
tenderly treated with for his instruction, and 
the convincement of his understanding, that 
he may experience repentance and forgive- 


In much love to our young people we ex- Exhortation 
hort them to avoid the many vanities and Unities and 
ensnaring corruptions to which they are captions 
exposed. It is written, " Thou shalt worship 
the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou 
serve." l Take the advice of godly parents, 
guardians and friends, ever remembering that 
next to our Creator children ought to obey 
their parents, and that disobedience to them 
is a breach of the moral law, and always 
offensive in the Divine sight. Submit to 
their reasonable requirings with cheerful- 
ness, though these may sometimes thwart 
your own inclinations, and answer not fro- 
wardly or crossly. They watched over you 
and took care of you when you were utterly 
unable to help or take care of yourselves ; 
why then should you grieve or wound their 
anxious minds by running into vain and 
expensive fashions, associating with corrupt 
or frivolous persons, wasting precious time 
in idle conversation and harmful diversions ; 
all of which, we have no doubt, the Divine 
monitor in your own breasts often pleads 

1 Matthew 4: 10. 



to simplicity 
in dress, etc. 

Habits of 



Children to 
be placed 
wtik Friends. 

against, and shows to be destructive of your 

We beseech you to attend to this Inspeak- 
ing Word, and dutifully yield to the tender 
advice of your friends. Shrink not from the 
cross of Christ in your garb, language or man- 
ners, but through a subjection of your wills to 
the Divine will in these and all other respects 
walk answerably to the purity of our profes- 
sion, and the simplicity and spirituality of our 
worship ; so may you be instructive exam- 
ples to serious inquirers after truth. To 
walk close with God individually means 
greater strength for accepted work, wiser 
discriminations of duty, and a refuge when 
sorrows and trials assail us. It gives a calm 
assurance, which few things can disturb. 
" Remember, O my soul, the quietude of 
those in whom Christ governs." 

Friends are advised to bring up their child- 
ren to habits of industry, placing them with 
sober and exemplary persons for instruction 
in such occupations as are consistent with 
our religious principles and testimonies. 
And when it is necessary for them to leave 
home, let them board if practicable in a 
Friends' family, so that their surroundings 
and intercourse may tend to preserve them 
in a becoming conduct and demeanor. 


And it is desired that those whose circum- Those able, 

r . * , .«. r . . .1 to assist less 

stances furnish ability tor instructing the affluent. 
children of members less affluent in useful 
and suitable employments, may extend to 
them such aid and encouragement as will 
remove every reason for placing them with 
those not in membership with us. 


We tenderly and earnestly advise and ex- Reading of 
hort all parents and heads of families that encSSedT 8 
they endeavor to instruct their children and 
families in the doctrines and precepts of the 
Christian religion as contained in the Script- 
ures ; and that they incite them to the dili- 
gent and reverent reading of those excellent 
writings, which set forth the miraculous con- 
ception, birth, holy life, wonderful works, 
blessed example, death, resurrection and as- 
cension of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ ; and to educate their children in the 
belief of the inward manifestation and opera- Fundamental 
tion of the Holy Spirit on their own minds, g£j£ of 
which is the fundamental principle of our 
Society, that they may reap the benefit and 
advantage thereof for their own peace and 
everlasting happiness. 


Liberty of 

Caution as to 




Liberty of conscience being" the common 
right of all men, and particularly essential to 
the well-being" of religious societies, we hold 
it to be indispensably incumbent upon us to 
maintain it inviolably amongst ourselves ; 
and therefore advise and exhort all in pro- 
fession with us to decline the acceptance of 
any office or station in civil government, 
the duties of which are inconsistent with our 
religious principles, or in the exercise of 
which they may be, or think themselves to 
be, under the necessity of exacting of their 
brethren any compliance against which we 
are conscientiously scrupulous. 

We believe that we are called to show to 
the world in life and practice that the blessed 
reign of the Messiah, the Prince of Peace, is 
begun, which will, we believe, proceed until it 
attains its completion in the earth, when, ac- 
cording to the prophecies of Isaiah and 
Micah, ki Nation shall not lift up sword 
against nation, neither shall they learn war 
any more." ' We cannot, therefore, consis- 
tently join with such as form combinations of 

1 Isaiah 2 : 4. 


TRADE. 5 5 

a hostile nature against any, nor can we Respect for 
unite with or encourage such as revile or authority. 
asperse those in authority. It is written, 
"Thou shalt not speak evil of a ruler of thy 
people." l 


We affectionately desire that Friends may Caution 
wait for Divine counsel in all their engage- f^X^te 
ments, and not suffer their minds to be hur- d . e * ire for 


ried away by an inordinate desire for worldly 
riches ; remembering the observation of the 
Apostle in his day, so often sorrowfully 
verified in ours, that "They that desire to be 
rich fall into a temptation and a snare and 
many foolish and hurtful lusts." 2 Even when 
riches to any extraordinary degree have been 
amassed by the successful industry of par- 
ents, how often have they proved like wings 
to their children, carrying them beyond the 
limitations of Truth into liberties repugnant 
to our religious testimonies, and sometimes 
into undertakings which have terminated in 
irreparable damage to their temporal affairs, 
if not an entire forgetfulness of the great 
work of the soul's salvation. 

1 Acts 23 : 5. 2 I. Timothy 6 : 9. 









ability to 


Contracts to 
be strictly 

It is earnestly desired that Friends be care- 
ful to avoid all pursuit after the things of this 
world, by such ways and means as depend 
too much on hazardous enterprises ; but 
rather labor to content themselves with such 
a plain way and manner of living as is most 
agreeable to the self-denying principle 
which we profess, and most conducive to 
that tranquillity of mind which is insepara- 
ble from the right enjoyment even of tem- 
poral things. It is advised that where any 
among us err, or are in danger of erring in 
these respects, they be faithfully and timely 

Being earnestly concerned that the service 
of our religious Society may not be ob- 
structed, or its reputation dishonored by any 
imprudence of its members in their worldly 
engagements, we recommend to all that they 
be careful not to venture upon such business 
as they do not well understand, nor launch 
out in trade beyond their abilities, and at the 
risk of others, especially on the credit which 
may be derived from a profession of the 
Truth ; but that they bound their engage- 
ments by their means, and when they enter 
into contracts or make promises, that they 
endeavor on all occasions strictly to fulfil 

TRADE. ( 57 

Friends are recommended frequently to Affairs to be 
inspect the state of their affairs, and to keep inspected! 
their accounts clearly and accurately, that ^™ e 
they may thus more easily know whether kt v l - 
they live within the bounds of their circum- 
stances, and that the settlement of their 
estates after death may be less perplexing. 
It is also recommended that when any find 
they have not, or are in danger of not having 

-I r i . rr • i • Friends to be 

more property left than is sumcient to dis- consulted. 
charge their debts, they promptly disclose 
their circumstances to some judicious Friends 
and ask their advice how to act. 

When overseers or other concerned Friends counsel to be 
have reason to fear that any of our members extended - 
are declining in their circumstances and likely 
to fail, it is recommended that such be sea- 
sonably counseled with. 

When it is known that any member of our 
Society has become unable to discharge his _ 

\ ^ Duty of 

obligations, the Overseers should, unless after overseers. 
consideration they believe such action un- 
necessary or inexpedient, inform the Prepara- 
tive or Monthly Meeting. Upon receipt of 
such information the Monthly Meeting should Monthly 

, . Meeting 

appoint a committee to inquire into the cir- action. 
cumstances of the case, and upon their 
report, take such further action as may appear 



Assignments We urge upon the attention of Friends 

to be without , . r r . . r 

condition, etc. that assignments ot property for the benefit 
of creditors be without condition or reser- 
vation ; and that, when practicable, the 
creditors be consulted as to the person to be 
appointed assignee ; that when a Friend ac- 
cepts the office of trustee or assignee, he be 
active in collecting the effects of the estate, 
and prompt in making distribution, and that 
trustees of all kinds be careful to keep trust 
funds clearly separate from their personal 

We desire to warn our members who are 
managers or stockholders of incorporated 
companies, to be careful how they assume 
that acts which would be improper for them as 
individuals are allowable in such companies. 
Our meetings should not receive subscrip- 

etc.,nottobe t j ons c j onat j ons or bequests from persons 

received from. J- L 

who have fallen short in the payment of their 
debts until they shall have paid off their de- 
ficiencies, or been voluntarily released there- 
from by their creditors ; for it should be re- 
membered that though in such cases the person 
just debts to may have been legally discharged, the prop- 
able* 1 * ien erty he may afterwards acquire is not proper- 
ly his own till the former debts have been 
fairly paid to the satisfaction of the creditors. 

Advice to 
trustees and 

Caution to 
managers of 



We caution all in membership with us to Caution 
be careful how they enter into joint obliga- obUgadons^ 
tions with others under the plea of rendering 
acts of kindness ; many by so doing .have 
been suddenly ruined, and their families re- 
duced to deplorable circumstances. 


When differences arise between any of Mode advised 
our members about property, it will usually ^dnTere^ces. 
be best to proceed substantially as follows ; 
and we should endeavor to pursue a similar 
course where we have differences with per- 
sons not members of our Society. 

Let the party who thinks himself aggrieved 
calmly and kindly ask the other to comply 
with the demand for settlement. If this be 
refused, the complainant, or if he lives at too 
great a distance, some friend whom he may 
authorize, should take with him one or two 
of the overseers, or other discreet persons, 
and in their presence, repeat the request. 

If this should fail of the desired effect, Arbitrators 
let the parties choose a suitable number 



Duties of 

may take 
legal advice. 

Advice to 

of arbitrators, and mutually engage, by 
suitable written instrument, to abide by their 

When arbitrators are chosen they should, 
as speedily as circumstances will admit, 
appoint a time and place of meeting, and 
attend to the business without unnecessary 
delay, giving the parties fair and full hearing 
in the presence of each other, but listening 
to neither apart ; they should shun all pre- 
vious information respecting the case, or, 
having heard anything on it, endeavor to 
stand unbiased thereby, and should reject no 
evidence proposed if considered by either 
arbitrator as pertinent. They should not 
suffer their own opinions to be known till 
they have carefully considered the subject 
and come to a decision, and in their award 
they need not assign a reason for their 

When arbitrators are at a loss for want of 
leoral knowledge in the matter referred to 
them, it may be proper for them, at the joint 
expense of the parties, to take the opinion of 
counsel learned in the law, in order to come 
to a proper judgment. They ought not to 
consider themselves as advocates for those 
bv whom they are chosen, but as friends of 


both parties, whose duty it is to judge right- 
eously ; thus they may the better answer 
the end of their appointment, and be helpful 
in conciliating the minds of the parties. 

It is desired that persons differing about Ministers as 
worldly affairs shall, as little as may be, en- advised 
gage Friends in the ministry as arbitrators. a s ainst 

It is further earnestly advised that Friends 
do not go to law, particularly one with Advice 

i tc r 1111*1 against going 

another. It, tor any reason, one should think to law. 
himself under necessity to bring an action 
against a fellow-member, let him consult the 
overseers or other judicious Friends before 
proceeding. Where loss or responsibility Cases 
might result by delay, the Monthly Meeting excepted. 
should hold members excused if they proceed 
differently from the course defined in this 
chapter, provided they respect in their action 
the spirit of the testimony we thus present, 
and proceed in love and moderation, without 
anger, animosity, or purpose of oppression. 


of property 
to be 

while in 




Realizing the uncertainty of life, it is 
affectionately advised that those who are in 
,the possession of property shall carefully 
consider whilst in health, the just disposition 
of it, regarding themselves as stewards only, 
and remembering their responsibility for the 
right use of all which has been placed in 
their care. 

The advice long- contained in our Book of 
Discipline, addressed to those who have 
property which should be disposed of by 
will, rather than through the ordinary distri- 
bution of the law, is here renewed. It is 
tenderly advised that such Friends make their 
wills in time of health and strength of judg- 
ment ; and therein direct their substance as 
in justice and wisdom may be to their satis- 
faction and peace, laying aside all resentment, 
though occasion therefor may have been 
given, lest it should go with them to the grave, 
remembering we all stand in need of mercy 
and forgiveness. Making such wills in due 
time can shorten no one's days, but the omis- 


sion or delay thereof to a time of sickness, 
when the mind should not be diverted from a 
consideration of the approaching solemn 
period of life, has often proved very injurious 
to many, and been the occasion of creating 
animosities in families, which the seasonable 
performance of this duty might have effect- 
ually prevented. 

The caution is added that the drawing of w ... . . 

£> Wills to be 

wills be not left to incompetent persons, but drawn by 
that due care be taken to employ for the persons. 
purpose those skillful and of good repute. 


As the education of our youth in piety, 
virtue, and useful learning under the care of 
prudent, religious persons, has ever been 
one of our important concerns, children 
being much influenced by their surroundings, 
it is renewedly desired that Quarterly, Month- and support 
ly, and Preparative Meetings be incited to ° 
proper exertions for the institution and sup- 
port of schools. 


6 4 


Funds to be 

to be 

Friends as 


It is therefore advised that where schools 
can be maintained, funds be raised in the 
meeting to aid in their establishment and 
support ; that committees be appointed in 
Monthly or Preparative Meetings to have 
the oversight thereof, and that they employ 
teachers of our religious persuasion when- 
ever practicable, who are not only capable of 
instructing the children in useful learning, 
but also of training them in the knowledge 
of their duty to God and toward one 

The importance of training our children 
and youth in a knowledge of our religious 
principles and a love for our testimonies, 
being widely felt, Preparative and Monthly 
Meetings are recommended, when a living 
concern arises, to establish and encourage 
First-day schools within their limits, over 
which a guarded care should be extended 
through committees appointed by the meet- 


Parents, heads of families, and guardians 
are earnestly exhorted, to abstain, and as 
much as in them lies, prevent the children 
under their care and tuition from having Exhortation 
or reading books or other publications a g ains * 

° m L pernicious 

tending to prejudice the profession of the reading. 
Christian religion, or to weaken their faith 
in the inspiration of the Holy Scriptures or 
of the saving truths declared in them. Our 
members are advised to bear a faithful testi- 
mony against all forms of sensational and 
corrupt publications ; and, in order to en- 
courage a taste for good literature and 

. . « . Good reading 

to discourage pernicious reading, they are to be 
earnestly exhorted to provide good books F ° 
and reading matter for their children and 
families, and frequently to read with them. 

If any of our members print or publish 
any writing which tends to excite disunity or tending* 5 
discord among us, they should be earnest- to dlsumt y- 
ly labored with, and if they cannot be con- 
vinced of the impropriety of their conduct, 
the monthly meeting to which they belong 
may declare its disunity with them. 

6 5 


A fund being necessary to meet the ex- 
annuaiiy penditures of the Society, it is directed that 
the same be annually raised by a collection 
from each Quarterly Meeting, to be paid to 
the treasurer appointed by the Yearly Meet- 
ing, and subject to be drawn out by its di- 
rection, or by that of the Representative 
Committee, as the exigencies of the Society 
may require. 
Quotas. Any re-arrangement of the quotas of the 

several Quarterly Meetings shall be produced 
by a Committee of the Yearly Meeting 
appointed for that purpose. 

The present arrangement is as follows : 

Philadelphia Quarter . . . . to pay #20.00 in every $100. 

Abington Quarter to pay $14.50 in ever> Si 00. 

Bucks Quarter to pay $14.50 in every $100. 

Concord Quarter to pay $14.50 in every $100. 

Cain Quarter to pay $ 2.00 in every $roo. 

Western Quarter to pay $13.50 in every $100. 

Southern Quarter to pay $ 2.00 in every $100. 

Burlington Quarter to pay $ 5.00 in every $100. 

Haddonfield Quarter . . . . to pay $ 6.00 in every $ 00. 

Salem Quarter to pay $ 7.00 in every $100. 

Fishing Creek H. Y. Meeting to pay $ 1.00 in every $100. 




It is advised that each Monthly and Pre- Month i y 
parative Meeting raise and maintain a fund Meeting 
sufficient for its needs, and appoint a treas- 
urer to have charge thereof, whose accounts 
shall be settled annually by two or more 
Friends appointed for the purpose, who shall 
report their condition to the meeting. 


Quarterly, Monthly and Preparative Meet- 
ings are directed to make careful inspection inspection 
annually into the situation of the titles of 
the meeting properties, burial grounds, and 
'other estates which have been vested in 
trustees and by them held for the use and 
benefit of any of those meetings or of the 
Society at large ; and, if it should appear 
needful from the death of any trustee or renewal 

- 1 . .of trusts. 

trustees, or other cause, due and seasonable 

care should be taken to appoint others to 

the trust, and to have the new conveyance 

duly recorded ; that future difficulties and the to °be eyances 

danger of being deprived of such estates may recorded - 

be avoided. 


It is recommended to each Monthly Meet- 
Necessary ing to have a standing committee of men 
extended. and women Friends whose duty it shall be 
to see, by visits or otherwise, that advice and 
relief are seasonably extended to members 
in need, and assistance afforded them in such 
business as they are fitted for ; and the ex- 
pense which their support and the education 
of their children necessarily occasions, shall 
be drawn from the treasury of the meeting, 
Cases not to upon the order of the committee, remember- 

be exposed. ... ..... + ■. 

inor that in exercising this benevolent and 
Christian care, the names or situation of such 
members should not be exposed. 



It is affectionately advised that Friends Moderation 
keep to true moderation in all things apper- advlsed - 
taining to interments ; that they avoid the 
custom of wearing or giving mourning habits, 
the use of elaborate caskets, and all osten- 
tatious display or extravagant expenditure. 

It is recommended that Friends encourage Funera is 
the holding of funerals in our meeting- fr ? m our 

c> o meeting- 

houses, and that one or more suitable friends houses 

. ij encouraged. 

be appointed to be present to see that good 
order is observed, and that the body be 
removed for burial at a suitable time. 

It is further recommended that at all inter- Pause at 
ments time be allowed for a solemn pause, ^ av 
both before and after the coffin is lowered 
into the grave, and that forms and observ- 
ances not consistent with our testimonies be 

As some who attend burials may have a A/r , ,. 

J Moderation 

considerable distance to travel and need in needful 


bodily refreshment, it is earnestly advised 
that in all preparations for such occasions 
moderation be observed, and that Friends 




Commit t oos 
for care of 

marks of 

demean themselves in all respects with 

To prevent improper interments among 
us, it is recommended that two or more 
Friends be appointed by Monthly or Pre- 
parative Meetings to have the care of our 
several burying-grounds, and that no person 
not in membership be buried therein without 
a permit in writing signed by one or two of 
these Friends, who should also take care that 
our burial-grounds are properly enclosed and 
kept in good order. 

That no costly or showy monuments be 
affixed to graves in any of them, it is directed 
that the size be kept within the limits of 
eighteen (18) inches in width, nine (9) inches 
in thickness, and ten (10) inches in height 
above the level of the ground, with only 
such inscription as is necessary for identifica- 
tion. But Monthly or Preparative Meetings 
may regulate the size of grave stones in 
their grounds, provided the dimensions here 
stated be not exceeded. 


The following particular advices to our where and 
members are directed to be read seriously £ e read! 
and deliberately in Quarterly and Monthly 
Meetings at least once a year. And Month- 
ly Meetings are encouraged to read, or have 
read in subordinate meetings as way may 
open, these or other parts of the Discipline, 
with the caution to present them always 
weightily and earnestly, and at times suit- 
able to the purpose. 

In conducting the affairs of our meetings Conduct of 

t- • 11 i -i meetings. 

Friends are exhorted to do so in the peace- 
able spirit and wisdom of Jesus, with dignity, 
forbearance, and love of each other. Those 
who may favor the adoption of any measure 
should not, after having fully expressed their 
views, manifest an over-anxious concern 
that they should prevail, and those who may 
not feel prepared for the adoption of a 
proposition should not endeavor to prevent 
it by undue opposition. 



Waiting in Frequent waiting- in stillness on the Lord 

for the renewal of strength keeps the mind 
at home in its proper place and duty, and out 
of unprofitable association and converse. 
Much hurt may be done to the religious 
mind by excessive and absorbing attention 
to outward affairs, for this, if suffered to pre- 
vail, benumbs the soul, and prevents its as- 
cending in living aspirations toward the 
Fountain of Eternal Life. 


_ , . . It being- evident that where the manifesta- 

Truth is safe <^ 

in its guid- tions and restraints of the Spirit of truth are 
duly prized and regarded, it leads out of a 
bondage to the spirit of this world, and pre- 
serves the minds of its followers from many 
fettering and disqualifying entanglements ; 
and contrariwise that inordinate love and 
pursuit of worldly riches often betray those 
who are captivated by them into many diffi- 
culties and dangers, to the great obstruction 
of the work of Truth in the heart, it is affec- 
tionately desired that the counsel and gra- 
cious promise of our blessed Master to his 
followers may be borne in remembrance by 
us: "Seek ye first his kingdom and his 
righteousness ; and all those things shall be 
added unto you." l 

1 Matthew 6 : 33. 


Our members are earnestly entreated to Music 
consider weightily the disposal of their time, dan cing, 

... . r card-playing. 

that, receiving it as a gift of God for the stew- 
ardship of which an account must be ren- 
dered, they may not lightly squander it in 
music, nor indulge in the questionable diver- 
sions of card-playing and dancing, for we 
believe that attention given to these things 
has often diverted the mind from the higher 
purposes of life, and dwarfed the growth in 
religious experience. 

It has ever been a principle of the Society Moderation 
of Friends to live in all ways in moderation and ,. . 


and simplicity. Thus the powers granted us 
may be put to their true use, and by 
proper industry and economy, and the 
avoidance of excess and vain display we 
may be able to meet our obligations, main- 
tain those dependent upon us, and aid in our 
measure those who need a helping hand. 
The neglect of this truly Christian rule of 
life leads inevitably into difficulty and em- 
barrassment, and, often, to disaster and the 
reproach of the profession which we make. 


intoxicants As lt is our duty to strive to preserve 

and unimpaired the strength, physical, mental, 

narcotics. r o ' ■ r J 

and spiritual, which has been mercifully given 
us, it is an earnest exhortation to all that 
they not only abstain from the use of in- 
toxicating liquors as a drink, not allowing 
themselves to become concerned in their 
manufacture or sale for that purpose, but 
that they be very cautious also in their use 
as medicine ; and further, that, as way may 
appear consistently with our profession, they 
endeavor to spread these salutary principles. 
And believing the use of tobacco to be not 
only offensive, but generally injurious, es- 
pecially to the young, it is affectionately 
advised that Friends abstain from its cultiva- 
tion, manufacture, sale, and use ; and also 
that in the use of other narcotics, regarded 
as medicines, great care be exercised. 


As suitable marriage connections greatly 
promote happiness and comfort in life, it is 
earnestly advised that w r hen any of our mem- 
bers are inclined to marry they seek for Di- 
vine counsel and direction therein, and that 
their parents or guardians be early acquainted 
with their prospect. Let marriages be ac- 


complished in an orderly manner, gravely 
and weightily ; let moderation be observed, 
and no cause for reproach occur, but let all 
behave with such sobriety as becomes a peo- 
ple loving God. The testimony of Friends 
concerning marriage is earnestly commended 
to all, that it be regarded as an engage- 
ment solemnly to be made in the Divine 
presence by the parties thereto, who, proceed- 
ing in sincerity and truth, must seek Divine 
blessing and approval, which, if graciously 
bestowed, can receive no increase or enhance- 
ment through the intervention or assumed 
authority of human ministry. 

Gifts and 

All public gifts and legacies should be 
strictly applied to the uses intended by the legacies. 
donors, or, if any unforeseen circumstances 
should render this difficult or impracticable, 
an early application should be made to the 
Representative Committee for its advice or 
aid. Monthly and other meetings of busi- 
ness are cautioned to see that timely care is 
taken for the renewal of trusts, and they are 
exhorted to be diligent and particular as to 
the careful investment of trust funds. 


Inspection of Friends are earnestly advised to inspect 
outward ^ e s tate of their outward affairs at least 


once in the year, and to consider carefully, 
whilst in health, the just disposition of their 
estates by will or otherwise. 


The following Queries are all to be read, 
where read, deliberately considered, and answered, once 
a year, in those Quarterly Meetings which 
next precede the sitting of the Yearly Meet- 
ing, and in the Preparative and Monthly 
Meetings reporting to them, and the sum- 
mary answers thereto adopted by the Quar- 
terly Meetings are to be forwarded to the 
Yearly Meeting, so that it may be informed 
of the general condition of the Society. 
The First, Second, and Eighth Oueries 
fndeigSh^ are a * so to ^ e rea< ^ considered, and answered 
spedairuie in the two Quarterly Meetings preceding the 
one before mentioned, and in the Preparative 
and Monthly Meetings which report thereto, 
but they are not required to be read or 
answered in the Quarterly Meetings immedi- 


ately following the Yearly Meeting, or in 
the subordinate meetings reporting to them. 

The reading and answering of any of the 
Queries is not enjoined upon Preparative 
Meetings identical in membership with their 
Monthly Meetings. 

First Qttery. Are all our religious meet- 
ings for worship and for discipline regularly 
held ? Do Friends duly attend ? Is the 
hour observed, and is the behavior of those 
assembled becoming ? 

Second Query, Are love and unity main- 
tained amongst you ? Are tale-bearing and 
detraction discouraged ? When differences 
arise, are endeavors used speedily to end 
them ? 

Third Query. Do you maintain a faithful 
testimony in favor of the free ministry of the 
gospel, and against the system of a pro- 
fessional ministry ? 

Fourth Quay. Do you bring up those 
under your care in plainness of speech, be- 
havior, and apparel? Do you encourage them 
in the frequent reverent reading of the Holy 
Scriptures, and guard them from pernicious 
reading and the corrupting influences of the 
world? And are you, yourselves, good ex- 
amples in these particulars ? 


Fifth Query. Are you clear of the manu- 
facture, sale, and use of intoxicating liquors 
as a drink, and careful to discourage the 
same ? Are you cautious in their use as 
medicine, clear of signing applications for 
license to make or sell them as drink, and of 
renting your property for these purposes ? 
Do you avoid the unnecessary frequenting 
of taverns, and the attendance of places of 
harmful diversion ? Do you maintain mod- 
eration and simplicity at marriages and 
funerals, and on other occasions ? 

Sixth Query. Do you take care of such of 
your members as need aid, and assist them 
in business if they are capable of it ? Are 
their children freely instructed to fit them for 
suitable occupation and self-support ? And 
are any of these or other Friends' children 
placed from amongst Friends ? 

Seventh Query. Are you careful to live 
within the bounds of your circumstances, 
without ostentation or vain display, and to 
keep to moderation in your trade or busi- 
ness ? Are you punctual to your promises, 
prompt and just in the payment of your 
debts, and are such as give reasonable around 
for concern on these accounts, seasonably ad- 
vised or labored with, for their preservation or 
recovery ? 


Eighth Query. Do you take due care to 
treat with offenders in the spirit of meekness 
and love, without partiality or unnecessary 
delay, in order for their help, endeavoring to 
reach a judgment in the authority of Truth? 

Ninth Query. Do you maintain a faithful 
testimony in favor of peace and arbitration, 
and against war and the preparations for and 
excitements to it, fraudulent or clandestine 
trade, oaths, and all forms of lotteries and 
gambling ? 

Tenth Query. Has due care been taken to 
record each birth, removal and death that has 
occurred among the members of your meeting 
during the last year? Has a duplicate or 
copy of each marriage certificate been care- 
fully made and preserved ? Have all disused 
or completed record or minute books of the 
meeting been deposited in a place of safety, 
approved by the meeting ? 

Eleventh Query. Are there First-day 
Schools held in connection with your meet- 
ings ? Are they under care of committees 
appointed in the Preparative or Monthly 
Meetings, and are they conducted in accord 
with our principles and testimonies ? 

Twelfth Query. Are there schools estab- 
lished amongst you for the education of 


your children, under the charge of teachers 
in membership with us, and superintended 
by committees appointed in your business 
meetings ? Do the teachers and pupils 
attend mid-week meetings ? 

Thirteenth Query. What changes have 
been made in the times and places of holding 
your meetings, and what new meetings have 
been established ? 

Fourteenth Query. Are the several Quer- 
ies regularly read and answered as directed ? 

[Note. — In connection with the nth and i 2th Queries 
full and orderly returns as to numbers of teachers, pupils, 
etc., are directed to be sent up through the several meet- 
ings to the Yearly Meeting, according to such form and 
arrangement as may be approved by the Yearly Meeting.] 


The Society of Friends has ever regarded view of 


the marriage contract as one of a religious F 

nature, and as affecting all the relations of 
life. It is therefore earnestly and affection- 
ately advised, that, previously to making any . . 
procedure in this important concern, our counsel to be 
members seriously and humbly wait upon s ° ugl 
the Lord for counsel and direction. When 
favored with satisfactory clearness therein, Advice of , 

. m parents to be 

they should acquaint their parents or guardi- sought. 
ans with their prospect and seek their advice. 
In this way they may be preserved from 
unsuitable connections. Parents and con- 
cerned Friends should discourage the mar- with those 
riage of our members with those of other professions 
principles and professions of religion ; be- dlscoura g ed - 
cause unhappiness often results from want 
of harmony and sympathy in religious con- 
victions, and serious difficulties may arise in 
the training of children. 

The following are principles upon which 
the good order in our Religious Society, in 
relation to the accomplishment of marriage, is 
founded : — 



Consent of 
parents or 

Proposal to 
be laid before 

Assistance of 
priest or 
minister to be 

Order to be 

Notice of 

First. That the consent of parents or 
guardians should be early obtained by the 
parties, in order to preserve harmony, peace 
and unity in families ; and to guard against 
hasty and improper connections. 

Second. That the Society may extend a 
watchful care over its members, and that 
Friends may proceed commendably in this 
important connection, the proposal of mar- 
riage should be laid before the Monthly 

Third. That Friends maintain a testi- 
mony in support of the free ministry of the 
Gospel, by avoiding the assistance of a priest 
or minister in accomplishing this solemn en- 

For the purpose of maintaining these prin- 
ciples and testimonies, it is agreed that the 
following order be observed in the accomplish- 
ment of marriage : — 

The man and woman making the proposal 
of marriage should communicate their inten- 
tions to the Monthly Meeting in writing, 
signed by them both, substantially as fol- 
lows : — 


To Monthly Meeting of Friends. 

With Divine permission, and Friends' 

approbation, we intend marriage with each 


A. B. 

D. E. 

If they have parents or guardians, the Consent of 
consent of these, when it may reasonably presented. 
be obtained, should be expressed in the 
meeting, or certified thereto in writing. 

If the persons belong to the same month- 
ly meeting, a committee of men and women 
Friends should be appointed to inquire re- Committee of 
specting their clearness of other similiar en- inqulry - 
gagements, and to take any needful care 
that the provisions of state laws in such cases 
will be complied with ; and that the rights of Ri £ hts °( 

1 m ° children by 

children by a previous marriage (where there previous 
are such) are legally secured. Where either m 
is a member of another monthly meeting, he 
or she should, in ample time for inquiry, ask 
therefrom a certificate of membership, and of when not r 

1 members of 

clearness of other marriage engagements ; same Monthly 
and in this case a committee appointed as 
above, directed by the meeting having gen- 
eral charge, may, at its discretion, consist of 
Friends of but one sex. 

8 4 




Time and 

Committee of 

May be 

Order at 


If at the next meeting, the committee shall 
report that inquiry has been made, and that 
no obstruction to further proceeding appears, 
and where one party is a member of another 
meeting, if a satisfactory report shall be re- 
ceived therefrom, the Monthly Meeting should 
grant the parties liberty to accomplish their 
marriage according to our order, at a public 
meeting for worship, or at a meeting at such 
other time and place as it may approve, ex- 
cept on the First day of the week, and should 
appoint two Friends of each sex to have care 
and oversight thereof. Nominations of such 
overseers may be made in writing, and those 
so proposed, if thought suitable by the meet- 
ing, may be appointed. 

A marriage having been authorized, and 
the meeting gathered at which it is to be ac- 
complished, it is advised that a season of 
quiet solemnity be observed, after which the 
parties to the marriage should rise in the 
presence of the assembly, and, taking each 
other by the hand, the man should declare 
audibly in words to this effect: — "In the 
presence of the Lord, and before this assem- 
bly, I take thee, D. E., to be my wife, promis- 
ing, with Divine assistance, to be unto thee 
a loving and faithful husband until death 
shall separate us." 


Then the woman should, in like manner, 
declare : "In the presence of the Lord, and 
before this assembly, I take thee, A. B., to 
be my husband, promising, with Divine 
assistance, to be unto thee a loving and faith- 
ful wife until death shall separate us." 

After this declaration the marriage certifi- Certificate to 
cate should be read by some one approved be read and 

• i 11 signed. 

by the overseers appointed to attend the 
marriage, and should then be signed by the 
contracting parties. 

A period of silence should follow, after Meeting to 
which the meeting should be closed by the be closed - 
overseers or other Friends approved by 

Marriage certificates, before they are n ., 4 

& J Certificates to 

read and signed, should be examined, and, be examined. 
if necessary, corrected by the overseers in 
charge of the marriage. 

The form of the certificate shall be as 
follows : 

Whereas, A. B. of , in the Form of 

county of , in , son of Certlficate - 

C. B. of and H. his wife ; and 

D. E. daughter of F. E. of 

and M. his wife, having declared their inten- 
tions of marriage with each other, before a 
Monthly Meeting of the religious Society of 


Form of Friends, held at , according to the 

good order used among them [where the 
parties are under the care of parents or 
guardians add] and having consent of parents 
or guardians concerned [as the case is] 
their said proposal of marriage was allowed 
of by the said meeting. 

Xow these are to certify whom it may 
concern, that for the full accomplishment of 
their said intentions, this day of 

the month, in the year of our Lord 

, they, the said A. B. and D. E. 
appeared in a public meeting * of the said 
Society, held at aforesaid ; and 

the said A. B. taking the said D. E. by the 
hand, did. on this solemn occasion, openly de- 
clare, that he took her, the said D. E. to be 
his wife, promising, with Divine assistance, 
to be unto her a loving and faithful husband, 
until death should separate them ; and then, 
in the same assembly, the said D. E. did in 
like manner declare, that she took him, the 
said A. B. to be her husband, promising, 
with Divine assistance, to be unto him a lov- 
ing and faithful wife, until death should sep- 

" When the marriage is accomplished at a private house, instead 
of the words, " in a public meeting of the said Society, held at 

aforesaid;" say, "at a meeting at the house of 

in the of 


arate them. And morover, they, the said 
A. B. and D. E. (she according to the cus- 
tom of marriage, assuming the name of her 
husband) did, as a further confirmation there- 
of, then and there to these presents set 
their hands. * ^ 

D. B. 

And we whose names are also hereunto 
subscribed, being present at the solemniza- 
tion of the said marriage and subscription, 
have, as witnesses thereto, set our hands, the 
day and year above written. 

It is affectionately advised that marriages Gravity and 
be accomplished gravely, weightily and sol- be observed! 
emnly, and that the parties themselves, their 
parents, and others concerned take care that 
moderation be observed, that no reproach 
arise or occasion of offence be given ; but 
that all behave with such sobriety as becomes 
a people fearing God. If anything- to the If otherwise 

J ° overseers to 

contrary be observed, the overseers, or other admonish. 
concerned Friends present, ought in brother- 
ly love to extend suitable admonition. 

The said overseers shall report to the next overseers 
Monthly Meeting whether this advice con- to report - 
cerning good order and moderation has been 
observed, that the duplicate marriage cer- 



under care 
of meeting 
with a non- 

tificate, or, if a duplicate has not been made, 
the certificate itself a has been delivered to 
the Recorder, and that the legal requirements 
have been complied with. 

If a person not in membership with us 
proposes to marry one of our members, ap- 
plication may be made to the overseers of 
the Monthly Meeting to which the member 
belongs, and if the said overseers are satis- 
fied, the proposals of marriage, accompanied 
by their consent, may be laid before the 
Monthly Meeting in the usual form, and the 
meeting shall make inquiry, and have the 
same care and oversight of the marriage, 
proceeding in the manner prescribed by 
Discipline, as where both parties are mem- 
bers of the same Monthly Meeting. 

No Monthly Meeting should entertain a 
proposal of marriage sooner than one year 
after the death of the husband or wife of either 
party to the marriage. 

It is advised that no misdemeanor be 


not to be treasured up against a person until the time 

treasured up. c i . . -, r , 

of his presenting proposals ot marriage, and 
then be brought forward, though perhaps long 
before known to those who make objections. 
As serious consequences frequently follow 
to offspring from the marriage of persons 

a See page 112, second paragraph. 

No marriage 
sooner than 
one year. 


nearly related by consanguinity, we cannot Marriage of 
approve or consent to the marriage ol those not consented 
so near akin as first cousins. The term t0 " 
" first cousins " applies to every description 
of grandchildren descended from one com- 
mon parent. 

Marriage being a solemn covenant for life, Divorce. 
and the fulfilment of its obligations essential 
to the welfare of the family and the mainten- 
ance of society, we cannot consent to divorce 
under any circumstances, or to any marriage 
or re-marriage in violation of this testimony ; Le ^ 
but a legal separation, without divorce, may separation. 
be allowed in extreme cases. 

It is advised that Friends exercise a re- Improper 
lieious care in watching over their children, connections 

£> o to be guarded 

and endeavor to guard them against improper against. 
connections in marriage ; that they be not 
anxious to obtain for them large portions, 
but that they encourage their marriage with 
persons of religious inclinations, suitable dis- 
positions and habits of industry. 

In order as much as may be to prevent the 
marriage of our members with those who are n 

o Care of the 

not in accord with our religious principles youth 

, 1 V- • 1 tenderly 

and testimonies, parents and rnends are ten- advised. 
derly advised to an increasing care of 'the 
youth, early to instruct them in the principles 

9 o 


Our good 
order to be 

should visit 
those who 

Procedure in 
in case of 

Retention of 

of Truth, by upright example as well as pre- 
cept, impressing- their minds with the duty of 
religiously observing them ; and endeavoring 
to restrain them from such company as is 
likely to entangle their affections in an im- 
proper manner. 

Our members are most earnestly advised, 
when contemplating marriage, to proceed in 
all cases in the good order set forth in our 
Discipline. If, however, notwithstanding 
these advices, which experience has proven 
to be of very great value, marriages of our 
members do occur contrary to our order, the 
Overseers should promptly visit such mem- 
bers in a spirit of love, and endeavor to re- 
store them to unity and fellowship with our 
Society, which ever desires the temporal and 
spiritual welfare of all its members. 

When one of our members accomplishes 
marriage with a person not in membership 
with us, and in so doing violates our testi- 
mony to the free ministry of the Gospel, or 
does so without observing our order in rela- 
tion to the accomplishment of marriage, he 
should be treated with by the Overseers. 

If it shall appear from their report that the 
person sympathizes with Friends in their tes- 
timonies, expects to attend our meetings, and 


desires to retain his right of membership, 
Monthly Meetings may retain such member, 
and the overseers shall report the name as- 
sumed by the wife for official record, if she 
be a member. 

If, however, the report of the overseers Procedure if 
should not satisfy the meeting, it shall ap- ™ort kTnot 
point a committee to visit the party and satisfactory. 
extend further labor ; should this prove in- 
effectual, the meeting may discontinue the 
membership of the party, who should be fur- 
nished with a copy of the concluding minute 
in the case, with information of his right of 

When two of our members shall unite in Procedure 
marriage without observing the good order wher ^ two 

c> o o members 

recommended by Discipline, overseers shall unite in 

. . . r , marriage out 

labor with the parties to convince them ot the f order. 
weight of the testimony which may have been 
violated, or of the importance of our order, 
that they may be willing to acknowledge to 
the Monthly Meeting that they regret having 
violated our Discipline, in which case the over- 
seers shall then report the name assumed by 
the wife. 

If, after patient labor, the efforts of the 
overseers shall be unavailing, they shall re- 
port the case to the Monthly Meeting, which 


may discontinue the membership of both or 

either of the parties, who should be furnished 
with a copy of the concluding minute in the 
case, with information of their right of appeal. 
Or, if thought desirable, the Monthly Meet- 
ing may appoint a committee to extend 
further labor. 


All meetings for business should keep 

Records to be ° l 

kept. neat, plain and correct records of their pro- 

ceedings in convenient books, with marginal 
references and index, and provide suitable 
places in which to preserve them. They 

~ . are particularly advised to attend to and 

Business to __ r * 

be punctually finish all business with care and dispatch, 
that it may at no time suffer by improper 

A committee should be annually appointed 
in each Preparative, Monthly and Quarterly 
Meeting for the nomination of a clerk, and 
when needed an assistant clerk, which may 




afford opportunity for their being seasonably 
changed, and for more of our qualified mem- 
bers to be exercised in these services. 

The use and design of Preparative Meet- Duties of 
ings is, in general, to digest and prepare busi- MeethTs^ 
ness, which may be proper to be laid before 
the Monthly Meeting, and Friends should 
be careful therein not to occasion unneces- 
sary delays, or undertake to decide on any 
business which should claim the attention 
and care of Monthly Meetings ; and they 
shall not take cognizance of proposals of 
marriage, this being exclusively the business 
of Monthly Meetings. When it is agreed 

. ° Cases to be 

that cases are to be carried forward, they forwarded in 
should be furnished to the Monthly Meet- w 
ing in writing. 

When men's and women's Monthly Meet- certificates 
ings are not held together, certificates of re- of removal - 
moval prepared and approved by one meeting 
must be sent to the other, and if there ap- 
proved, signed by the clerks of both. All 
certificates received must be read and minuted 
in both men's and women's meetings. 

When a Monthly Meeting is engaged to Inquiry to be 
prepare a certificate on account of the re- mac | e on 


moval of a Friend to another Monthly for 
Meeting, careful inquiry should be made ce 


by a committee appointed for that purpose 
respecting- the situation of his temporal 
affairs, and also, if single, concerning his 
situation in relation to marriage engage 
ments ; and if on such inquiry no impediment 
be found, the certificate should state that on 
inquiry no obstruction appears relative to his 
outward affairs to granting a certificate. 
Acceptance of When a certificate of removal from one 
removal. Monthly Meeting addressed to another is 
produced therein, and no sufficient objection 
appears, it should be accepted, and the party 
recorded as a member of that meeting. 
If any such person shall fall into circum 
Pecuniary stances requiring pecuniary relief within one 

relief needed r -\ r i • t 

by persons year alter the acceptance of his certificate, 
Amoved *he meet ing to which he has removed, should 
assist him, giving speedy notice thereof to the 
other, whereupon that meeting should imme- 
diately assume the care of him until he is 
again self-supporting, and repay the expense 
which has been incurred on his account. But 
if any Friend be reduced in his circumstances 
by fire or other sudden unavoidable losses, 
though it may be within one year after his 
removal as aforesaid, he should be kindly as- 
sisted and relieved by the meeting whereof 
he is a member. 


Friends removing out of the limits of Friends 
their Monthly Meeting's for any considerable removing 

J ° J a advised to 

length of time, are advised to apply to their apply for 

r . r -.. , certificates. 

respective meetings lor certificates directed 
to those within which they propose to sojourn 
or settle. If any one remove without so 
applying, the Monthly Meeting of which he 
is a member, should without improper delay, TT71 

r r J ' When not 

if, after the usual inquiry, no obstruction applied for 

, . r r i • t to be sent. 

appears, send a certificate tor him to the 
Monthly Meeting within which he has re- 

When apprentices or persons under age Certificates 

-. A i r . r ■ for minors, 

are under the necessity of going from one etc. 
place to another, their parents or guardians 
should apply for certificates for them recom- 
mending them to the care and oversight of 
the Monthly Meetings to which they remove. 
It is advised that Monthly Meetings, as Those 

t-, . -. bringing 

way may open, appoint two or more rnends certificates to 
to visit those who come recommended by be visited - 
certificate to settle amongst them. 

Monthly Meetings are advised to take due Certificates 
care that certificates of removal be seasona- seasonably 
bly forwarded through the correspondents to forwarded - 
the Monthly Meetings to which they are 
directed, they being the exclusive property 
of such meetings. 

9 6 


advised in 

Dealing with 
offenders in 

under dealing 
not to sit in 
meetings for 

Friends arc advised to be; very cautious in 
changing their places of residence, it having 
been observed that the dissolving of old, and 
the forming- of new connections, have in 
many instances been attended with effects 
prejudicial to a growth in the Truth and the 
service thereof, both in the heads and 
younger branches of families. We therefore 
recommend that before any determine to 
change their places of abode, they consult 
with their experienced fellow-members, and 
that a close attention be paid to the pointings 
of Divine Wisdom. 

In dealing with offenders where Month- 
ly Meetings are not held together, the 
men's or women's meeting should proceed 
separately until a judgment is arrived at, 
when, if the labor shall have been effectual, 
a suitable minute may be made and the case 
closed ; but if not, it should be presented to 
the other meeting, that if further labor be 
thought best it may be jointly proceeded in, 
and the result united with by both, which re- 
sult shall be communicated to the individual 
by the meeting in which the case originated. 

After a charge against a member for dis- 
orderly conduct is entered on the minutes of 
a Monthly Meeting, he should not be per- 


mitted to sit in any of our meetings for Disci- 
pline until the case is closed and the Monthly 
Meeting satisfied. In all cases where a 
Monthly Meeting apprehends itself under the Procedure 

/ . . where 

necessity to discontinue the membership of a membership 
person, let such person, if the occasion and continued. 
his situation will admit of it, be previously in- 
formed thereof, and when the judgment of the 
meeting is issued let a copy thereof be de- 
livered to him with notification of his right of 
appeal. Persons who have been discontin- 
ued as members, and who incline to be rein- 
stated, may be received as other applicants. 

If a person whose conduct has been such Dealing with 
as to require that he should be dealt with, ^ c e e rs at a 
reside at so great a distance that he cannot 
conveniently be conferred with personally, it 
may be done by correspondence ; and when 
a conclusion is reached, he may be informed 
thereof in the same manner ; or if such a per- 
son reside within the compass of another 
Monthly Meeting, it may be requested to 
treat with him according to our order, and to 
report the effect of its care. If this be satis- 
factory, the person's membership should be 
transferred by certificate ; but if otherwise, 
a minute of denial may be made, and a 
copy thereof sent to the meeting within the 

9 8 


appearing as 

limits of which he resides, for the information 
of said meeting, and with a request that it be 
delivered to the person, with information of 
his right of appeal. 

If any person appearing as a Friend come 

within the compass of a Monthly Meeting, 

Friends to be no t being- recommended by certificate, and 

admonished. m ° * 

be of disorderly conduct, the overseers or 
other concerned Friends shall inquire whether 
or not he is a member of our Society, and if 
he prove so to be, admonish him ; and if the 
occasion require it, the overseers should 
report the case in the usual order, and the 
Monthly Meeting may thereupon inform the 
meeting of which he is a member of the 
circumstances, and take the direction of said 
meeting for dealing further with him accord- 
ing to our rules in cases of that nature. 

As there are members of our Religious 
Society living beyond the limits of any 
Monthly Meeting, and as it is important 
for the maintenance of good order that 
Monthly Meetings should be acquainted with 
the situation of their members, it is advised, 
that each Monthly Meeting, through its cor- 
respondent or other suitable person, at least 
once a year, address a friendly letter to its 
members who are thus isolated, endeavor- 

ence with 



ing to ascertain whether they continue their 
interest in the religious principles pro- Treatment of 
fessed by Friends, and in a good degree live S£j£ do 
in accordance therewith. Should no satisfac- 
tory reply be received for the period of five 
years, the Monthly Meeting shall be at 
liberty to make a minute declaring that they 
are no longer members thereof. Due effort 
should be made to furnish the parties with 
information of this action. 

It is advised that when any transgress the La b or to be 
rules of our Discipline, they shall, without j 11 s P irit of 
partiality, be sought and admonished in the 
spirit of love and Divine charity, so that it 
may be seen by all that the restoring spirit 
of meekness and Christian love abounds ; 
and that a gospel spirit is our spring and 
motive, as well in discipline as in worship. 

If any case under consideration prove too Assistance of 
weighty or difficult for a Monthly Meeting to Meeting 3 ^ 
determine, it should apply to the Quarterly dlfficultcases - 
Meeting for assistance, or if the circumstances 
be such as to require it, refer the subject 
thereto by minute. 

When any Monthly or Quarterly Meeting Copies of 
has occasion for, and requests copies of any sho^Ae 
of, the papers, minutes, or records of another § ranted 

1 L meetings. 

Monthly or Quarterly Meeting, it is advised 
that the same be granted. 




copies of 
minutes to 

Accounts of 
sufferings to 
be sent up, 

dents to be 

Duties of. 

Names to be 
placed in 

tives to 
Quarterly and 


Should differences arise among Friends, 
and the record thereof be made in any 
Monthly or Quarterly Meeting book, the 
granting of copies of such entries to the par- 
ties shall be discretionary with the Meeting. 

It is advised that Monthly and Quarterly 
Meetings collect and send up accounts of 
sufferings of their members for conscience' 
sake, and that they be preserved and recorded 
agreeably to the practice of our ancient 

Each Monthly and Quarterly Meeting 
should appoint a correspondent to whom 
certificates or other communications intended 
for the meeting should be addressed, and 
whose duty it is to acknowledge promptly, 
by letter or otherwise, the reception of such 
communications, and also to forward from 
the meeting such papers as may be placed in 
his charge for that purpose. The name and 
post office address of each correspondent 
shall be forwarded annually to the Yearly 
Meeting, and published in the Extracts. 

A suitable number of men and women 
shall be appointed in each Monthly Meeting 
to attend the service of the Quarterly Meet- 
ing as representatives, and also at least four 
of each sex shall be appointed in each Quar- 


terly Meeting to attend the Yearly Meeting, Representa . 
and such representatives are encouraged to tives 

1 ° u encouraged 

make a brief verbal report of the exercises to report. 
of the meeting to which they were sent to 
the next session of the meeting appointing 

And it is earnestly advised and desired Punctual 
that all Friends who submit to these, or any appointments 
other services of the Society, be punctual en J olned - 
in their attendance thereon ; or, if prevented 
by sickness or any other unavoidable occur- 
rence, that they be careful to send informa- 
tion thereof ; also that those who are under |^^ not 
appointments to meetings shall not withdraw without 

11 ° m consent. 

therefrom before the conclusion without 
obtaining the meeting's consent. 

When it is thought expedient to make or Method of 
alter any rule of Discipline, or when it may ^ a " s f„ ng or 
appear advisable to make a general revision Discipline, 
of the Book of Discipline, the subject shall first 
claim the attention of a Monthly Meeting, and 
in case the proposition be there united with, it 
is to be forwarded to the Quarterly Meeting, 
and if there united with in like manner, it shall 
be forwarded to the Yearly Meeting for its 
consideration and decision. 

All letters or papers directed to the 
Yearly Meeting, except from such meetings 



Papers sent to 


Meeting to be 

Certificates of 
Friends to be 

Committee on 
duties of. 

Extracts to 
be sent to 

as regularly correspond therewith, shall be 
first perused by a few Friends, appointed 
to consider and report whether the same 
be proper to be read in the meeting. 

The certificates of Friends, members of 
other Yearly Meetings, who from a religious 
concern are drawn to attend this Yearly 
Meeting, are to be read therein. 

Friends appointed .to prepare epistles 
shall meet together before they proceed on 
the service, and also examine the several 
essays previous to their being laid before the 
Yearly Meeting. 

Extracts from the minutes of the Yearly 
Meeting should be sent to the subordinate 
meetings in order that each meeting, family 
and adult member may have a copy thereof, 
to have recourse to, as occasion may require ; 
and Monthly and Preparative Meetings are 
directed to exercise a care in the distribu- 
tion thereof. 


When a member of our Religious Soci- 
ety shall offer a resignation of his right of 
membership, it is advised that the Monthly 
Meeting, if way opens, appoint a committee 
to visit him in love and inquire into the cause 
of his resignation ; and if his mind continue 
unchanged, and the meeting be prepared, a 
minute may be made stating that he is re- 
leased at his own request ; of this action the 
party should be informed, and such person 
shall not be a member of our Society unless 
received again, according to our usual order. 



A member inclining to make an acknowl- 
edgment of a violation of our Discipline 
should prepare the same in writing ; and if 
on consulting the overseers or other judicious 
Friends the purport appears suitable to the 
occasion, he may send it, or present it to the 
meeting in person, and remain until it is read ; 
when, after a suitable pause, he should with- 
draw, before that or any other business is 
proceeded upon. The meeting is then to 
consider the case, and after a decision is 
reached, appoint a committee to inform him 
of the result. 



An essential object of our religious organ- 
ization being to strengthen and support its ^ °£ ety 
members in the upholding of our Christian members. 
testimonies, it has always exercised a care 
over their outward behavior, admonishing 
those who depart from its order, and disown- 
ing those who after patient labor appear 

Nevertheless, the help of the Society being 
by none so much needed as by the weak and j udgment not 
the wayward, the caution has always been ^ b e hasty; 

J J labor, patient 

extended that no judgment be placed hastily, and loving, 
or in the spirit of condemnation, but that all 
offenders be labored with lovingly, patiently, 
and so long as a reasonable hope of benefit 
therefrom appears. 

It is the desire of the Society that no one 
be disowned except when his retention would p^ t f y n s as to 
be to weaken our testimony for the Truth, disownments. 
impair the good example which we desire to 
set, or confuse our sense of right living. 

With these objects in view, Monthly Meet- 
ings have authority to exercise disciplinary 

• 105 



Authority of 

Meetings for 
labor and 

grounds of 


labor, and, where such labor proves ineffec- 
tual, to proceed to disownment, upon the 
general grounds stated below, as well as 
upon those particularly stated elsewhere in 
this Book of Discipline. These general 
grounds are : 

i. Breaches of the Moral Law, not ac- 
knowledged, repented, and repaired to the 
satisfaction of the Monthly Meeting. 

2. Wilful disregard of those provisions of 
the Discipline which by their language are 
made obligatory or prohibitory. 

3. Such transgressions of our Testimonies 
(stated under the headings of Gospel Min- 
istry, War, Oaths, Trade, Arbitration, and 
Gaming and Diversions), continued, and after 
labor unamended to the satisfaction of the 
Monthly Meeting, as clearly prove the per- 
son not to be in sympathy with the Truth as 
held by us. 

4. Habitual absence from our meetings, 
without sufficient cause ; or connection with 
other religious organizations. 


If any one be dissatisfied with, or think Notice 
himself aggrieved by, the judgment of a Monthly 
Monthly Meeting, he may, after a copy of the 
testimony is delivered to him, notify the first 
or second meeting thereafter of his intention 
of appealing to the ensuing Quarterly Meet- 
ing ; which notification the Monthly Meeting 
should enter on its minutes, and appoint a Monthly 
committee of four or more suitable Friends Meeting's 


to attend the Quarterly Meeting with it, and 
a copy of the minutes of the Monthly Meeting 
relative to the case, signed by the clerks, 
there to show the reasons whereon its judg- 
ment was founded, and submitting it to the 
said meeting. The Quarterly Meeting is 
then to refer the same to a suitable committee 
of Friends (omitting those of the Monthly 
Meeting from which the appeal comes), and 

. & r i-i Quarterly 

upon its report to connrm or reverse the said Meeting's 
judgment, or return the case to the Monthly ac 
Meeting for further care, as, on impartial 
deliberation, shall appear to be right, taking 
care to inform the parties of the result. 



Vearly If, on being informed thereof, such appel- 

action. lant is dissatisfied with the judgment of the 

Quarterly Meeting also, and shall notify that 
meeting or the next thereafter of his intention 
to apply to the Yearly Meeting for a further 
hearing, the said Quarterly Meeting, after re- 
cording such notification, is in like manner to 
appoint at least four suitable Friends to at- 
tend the Yearly Meeting with copies of the 
records of both the Monthly and Quarterly 
Meetings in the case, signed by their clerks. 
Here it is to be finally determined, and a 
copy of the determination is to be sent to the 
meeting from which the appeal came. 


When a Monthly Meeting, after solid con- 
sideration believes that benefit would accrue 
from a record of the life and services of a 
deceased member, it may prepare such a 
memorial. If approved by the meeting, and 
it is thought desirable, it may be forwarded 
to the Quarterly Meeting, for its attention, 
and if there thought advisable, it may be for- 
warded to the Representative Committee for 
consideration and revision, not later than its 
meeting in the Third month ; if thought suit- 
able by that body, it should be forwarded to 
the Yearly Meeting. 



Meetings to 
keep plain 
and correct 

Records of 
to be 

Tenth Query 
to be 

All meetings for business should keep neat, 
plain and correct records of their proceedings, 
in convenient books with marginal reference- 
notes and index, and provide suitable places 
in which to preserve them. 

As great inconvenience may arise from the 
want of clue attention in keeping a regular 
and correct record of membership, it is earn- 
estly enjoined on each Monthly Meeting that 
it appoint a careful Friend whose duty it shall 
be, in books provided for the purpose at the 
Monthly Meeting's expense, to keep a full 
and accurate record of all births, marriages, 
removals, and deaths that shall occur among 
its members. And in order to engrave the 
attention of Monthly Meetings more closely 
to this subject, it is further advised that an 
explicit answer be annually given to the 
Tenth Query by Monthly to Quarterly Meet- 
ings and through them to the Yearly Meeting. 

It is recommended that the form of the 
record be as follows : — 

1 10 










































































































B p 

Co" CD 








































































►2 O 
p & 





H 1 










- ° 











































ja ^ 


P 1=4 






CO* oo*. 









i-j W 









P - 




• CO* 






2 ^ 

^ CO 



















































































2. cd" 

H- 1 


CTQ '-•j 





















2 P" 







' S 




I \2 


Copies of 

certificates to 
be kept and 

may be made 
and kept, or 
recorded . 

Recorders to 
be furnished 
with book. 

of record and 
minute books. 

The Representative Committee shall pro- 
vide and keep on hand for the use of Monthly 
Meetings, to be distributed through its mem- 
bers, as occasion may require, neat, compact 
copies of our approved form of Marriage 
certificate, on durable material, and suitable 
for being firmly fastened in a book. 

A committee appointed to have care and 
oversight of a marriage should see that one 
of said marriage certificate blanks be prop- 
erly filled, and signed by the principals and 
witnesses, at the time the original marriage 
certificate is signed, endeavoring" to make it 
in wording and signatures a duplicate of the 
original certificate ; and when finished, deliver 
it to the Recorder for binding and safe 
custody ; or if the Monthly Meeting shall so 
direct, the Recorder shall make, instead of 
such proposed duplicate, a full copy of the 
original certificate with all the signatures. 

Each Monthly Meeting should furnish its 
Recorder with a suitable book in which to 
bind duplicates, or make copies, of Marriage 

As the record and minute books of Friends' 
meetings are very valuable, and in scattered 
places of deposit are inconvenient for refer- 
ence, and in some instances in danger of being 


lost, a central and secure place of deposit 
has been provided for them, and is under the 
care of the Representative Committee. And 
all meetings for business in the Yearly Meet- 
ing are encouraged to place therein such 
books as are not in present use. 


[The testimony of Friends concerning Slavery, incorporated in the Discipline 
in 1755, through the earnest labors of John Woolman and others, and at different 
times later repeated and extended, is here inserted as a matter of historic interest, 
having been omitted by the Committee of Revision from the body of the book, 
in view of the abolition of Slavery in the United States, in the year 1865.] 

It appears to have been the concern of this Testimony 

tx T • 1 r • • • 1 • against 

Meeting, revived from time to time with in- slavery and 
creasing weight, to testify their entire disunity ^ d e lave 
with the practice of enslaving mankind, (and 
particularly to guard all in membership with 
us against being concerned in the purchase of 
slaves from the coast of Africa), yet as we have 
with sorrow to observe, that in some parts of 
our country this shameful practice is still con- 
tinued and connived at, we think it proper to 
revive the advices heretofore issued, and again 
exhort our members to be no way accessory 
to this enormous national evil, but to dis- 
courage it by all the justifiable means in their 
power ; it being obvious, that wherever it 
prevails it tends to corrupt the morals of the 
people, so as not only to render them obnox- 
ious to the displeasure of the Almighty, but 
deaf to his warnings, and insensible and re- 
gardless of his impending judgments. 



This op- And we earnestly desire it may become 

d class , r 

to be in- the concern oi our members generally, to use 
Sed ami ad " the influence they have with those who hold 
assisted slaves by inheritance or otherwise, that they 
may be treated with moderation and kindness, 
and instructed as objects of the common 
salvation in the principles of the Christian 
religion ; as well as in such branches of 
school-learning as may fit them for freedom, 
and to become useful members of civil 
society. Also that Friends in their several 
neighborhoods advise and assist such of the 
black people as are at liberty, in the educa- 
tion of their children, and common worldly 
Hiring Understanding that some in membership 

with us, either through inadvertence or from 
selfish motives, have hired slaves to assist 
them in their business ; we desire such to 
consider, that in so doing they promote the 
unrighteous traffic and oppose our testimony 
against it. And it is our sense, that when 
slaves are thus hired, and the price of their 
services is intended for the benefit of those 
who claim the right of ownership, and not 
designed or applied to promote the liberation 
of the slave or slaves, such conduct is a vio- 
lation of our testimony. And where any 


among us cannot be persuaded to relinquish 
the practice, monthly meetings be at liberty, 
after^ patient labor has been found unavail- 
ing, to testify their disunity with them. 

Friends are also cautioned against acting caution to 

1 • • executors 

as executors or administrators to estates and adminis _ 
where slaves are bequeathed ; and doing any trators - 
thing whereby their bondage may be pro- 

We are united in judgment, that the state Kindness to 
of the black people who have been held as em ' 
slaves by any of us or our predecessors, calls 
for a deep inquiry and close examination, how 
far we are clear of withholding from them 
what under such an exercise may be opened 
to our view as their just right ; and we earn- 
estly and affectionately entreat those in par- 
ticular who have released any of them, to 
attend to the further openings of duty. Even 
if no such obligations to this people existed 
among us, it is worthy of our serious con- 
sideration, whether any object of beneficence 
is more deserving of our regard, than that of 
training up their youth in such virtuous prin- 
ciples and habits, as may render them useful 
and respectable members of the community, importing, 

selling 1 

It is the sense and judgment of this Meet- purchasing or 
ing, that if any of our members are con- slaves! aW&7 


cerned in importing-, selling-, or purchasing ; 
or shall give away or transfer any negro or 
other slave, with or without any other con- 
sideration than to clear their estate of any 
future incumbrance, or in such manner that 
their bondage is continued beyond the time 
limited by law or custom for white persons ; 
and also those , who accept of such gift or 
assignment ; — they ought to be speedily 
treated with in the spirit of true love and 
wisdom, and the iniquity of their conduct 
laid before them. And if, after Christian 
labor, they cannot be brought to such a sense 
of their injustice, as to do every thing which 
the monthly meeting shall judge to be rea- 
sonable and necessary, for the restoring such 
slave to his or her natural and just right to 
liberty, and condemn their deviation from the 
law of righteousness and equity, to the satis- 
faction of the said meeting, that such mem- 
ber or members be testified against as other 
transgressors are by the rules of our disci- 
pline for other immoral, unjust, or reproach- 
ful conduct. 
The meeting It appearing that, notwithstanding the 
t^discoura|e many afflictive dispensations with which 
trade*™ Divine wisdom has seen meet to visit this 
land, many of its inhabitants are so deaf to 


the language of the rod, as to continue in the 
nefarious traffic for slaves to the coasts of 
Africa ; and that the importation of them is 
still connived at : this Meeting, considering 
such a conduct as a bold and impious defiance 
of the Ruler of nations, and pregnant with 
the most alarming consequences to our coun- 
try, earnestly recommends to the meeting for 
sufferings to embrace every suitable opportu- 
nity for advancing our testimony in this 
respect, and for calling the attention of the 
public mind to this awfully interesting 




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Chapter on, 104 

Procedure as to, 104 

should be in writing, 104 

Advices, See Particular Advices, 71 

Affirmation, to be encouraged, 43 

APPEALS, Chapter on, 107 

Monthly Meeting's action upon, 107 

Notice to Monthly Meeting of, 107 

Quarterly Meeting's action upon, 107 

Yearly Meeting's action upon, 108 

ARBITRATION, Chapter on, 59 

Advised that differences be settled by, ....... 59 

and Peace, see 9th Query, 79 

Procedure recommended in, ... 59 

Proceedings at law, when permissible, 61 

in differences between nations, 42 

to be preceded by personal labor, 59 

* Arbitrators, see Arbitration, 59 

Advice that ministers be not engaged as, 61 

Duties of, and advice to, 60 

may take legal counsel, etc., 60 

are not advocates of either party, . 60 

Assignees, and trustees, advice to, 58 

Assignments, 58 

Creditors to be consulted when practicable, 58 

to be without condition, 58 

122 INDEX. 


Bequests, 75 

Birthright membership, 31 

Blasphemy 50 

BOOK OF DISCIPLINE, formation of, 8 

Procedure to amend or revise, 101 

BOOKS, Chapter on, 65 

Good, to be provided, 65 

Pernicious, reading of, to be discouraged, 65 

Pernicious, reading, see 4th query, 77 

Printing or publishing, tending to disunity, ... 65 

Representative Committee to assist in publishing, . . 16 

to be distributed by Representative Committee, ... 16 

BURIALS, Chapter on, 69 

from meeting-houses, encouraged, 69 

Grounds, committee to have care of, 70 

Moderation in refreshments at, 69 

Moderation in things pertaining to, advised, .... 69 

Size of gravestones, 70 

Solemn pause at, recommended, 69 

Suitable Friends to be appointed to be present at, . . 69 

Business, see Trade, 55 

Capital punishment, testimony against, 42 

Card playing, 73 

Children, rights of, when parent marries, 83 

Children, see Parents and Children, 51 

Record of, where parents belong to different monthly 

meetings, 32 

Membership rights, 31 

INDEX. 123 


CIVIL GOVERNMENT, Chapter on, 54 

Caution as to accepting office under, 54 

Friends' belief concerning Peace, 54 

Liberty of conscience, 54 

Respect for those in authority, 55 


Blasphemy, etc. , to be treated with, 50 

Caution against dissension or variance, 49 

Caution against sorcery, 49 

Immoral or disorderly conduct, etc., 49 

Tale-bearing and detraction, 48 

Corporations, caution concerning, 58 

Correspondents, duties of, 100 

Dancing, 73 

DAYS AND TIMES, Chapter on, 36 

Reasons for non-observance of, 36 

DISCIPLINE, formation of, 8 

Procedure to amend or revise, 101 

Disorderly persons appearing as Friends, procedure, .... 98 

DISOWNMENT, Chapter on, 105 

Discretion of monthly meetings concerning, .... 105 

Grounds on which it may be proceeded to, 106 

Loving, patient labor to be extended before, .... 105 

Position of the Society in relation to, 105 

Breaches of moral law, ground for disciplinary action, 106 

Divine Witness, subjection to, a qualification for member- 
ship, 33 

124 INDEX. 

Divorce, prohibited, 89 

Legal separation, without, 89 

Education, see Schools 63 

Elders, origin of appointment, 19 

Duties of, 19 

How appointed, 20 

Minute of appointment to be sent, 20 

Epistles, committee on, instructions to, 102 

Extracts from proceedings of Yearly Meeting to be sent 

down, 102 

Monthly and Preparative Meetings to distribute, . . 102 

FAMILY VISITS, (Chapter on), 34 

Approval of Monthly Meeting required, 34 

Fasts, feasts, etc., public, ground for non-observance of, . . 36 

First-day Schools, 64 

See 11th Query, 79 

Fundamental Principle of Friends, 7, 53 

Funds, Meeting, 66 

Gambling, .46 

See Ninth Query, 79 


See Particular Advices, 73 

See 5th and 9th Query, 78, 79 

GOSPEL MINISTRY, Chapter on, 35 

Essential qualification for, influence of the Holy Spirit, 35 

Exhortation to observe testimony concerning, .... 35 

Living and baptising, owned by Friends, 18 

Professional, testimony against, 35 

Service in, to be freely and faithfully discharged, . . 35 

INDEX. 125 


Grave-stones, size of, 70 

Monthly Meetings may make rules concerning, within 

limits stated, 70 

Hazardous enterprises, caution concerning, 56 

Horse-racing, . . 46 

Immoral and disorderly conduct, see Conduct and Conver- 
sation, 49 

See Disownment, 106 

Industry, habits of, for children, 52 

INTOXICANTS AND NARCOTICS, Chapter on, ... . 44 

Advice against Tobacco, 45 

Caution in use of, as medicine, 45 

Furnishing material for, 44 

Manufacture, sale, importation of, distillation of, . . 44 

Renting properties for sale of, 44 

See Particular Advices, «... 74 

System of licenses, testimony against, 45 

Use of as drink, or in food, 44 

Violation of testimony, provision against, 45 

Law, see Arbitration, 59 

Arbitrators may take legal counsel 60 

Friends advised against resorting to, 61 

Proceedings at, when permissible, 61 

Legacies and Bequests, . . 75 

Liberty of Conscience, 54 

Life and conduct, circumspect, a qualification for member- 
ship, 33 

Lotteries, sec Gaming and Diversions, 46 

See 9th Query, 79 

126 INDEX. 


MARRIAGE, Chapter on, 81 

Advice concerning engagements of, 81 

Ceremony of, 84, 85 

Certificate of, to be read, 85 

Form of, 85, 86, 87 

Copies or duplicates of, for record, 87, 88 

Committee of inquiry, duties of, 83 

Committee of oversight, 84 

Duties of, 85, 87, 112 

Consent of parents or guardians required, 82 

General advice, duties of parents concerning, .... 89 

Intentions of, notice to Monthly Meeting, 82 

Member of another Monthly Meeting, certificate required, 83 
Misdemeanors not to be treasured against the parties, 88 

Moderation and sobriety at, directed, 87 

of divorced persons prohibited, 89 

of first cousins not allowed, 88, 89 

Order to be observed at, 84 

Paragraph in Particular Advices, 74 

Principles of, on which good order is founded, ... 82 
Procedure in, where one party not member, .... 88 
Re-marriage not permitted within one year, .... 88 
Violations of order in, one party a member, . . . 90, 91 

Both parties members, 91, 92 

with others than members discouraged, 81 


Exhortation to diligence in attending, 14 

Men's and women's together or separately, 13 

Names and subordination of, 12 

Order of setting up or laying down, 13, 14 

Principles on which established, 12 

Spirit to be sought for, therein, 14 

Where Preparative and Monthly are the same, ... 13 

INDEX. 127 




Attendance of children at, 10 

Exhortation of 1694, concerning, 11 

Exhortation to zeal in attendance of, 10 

Neglect of, care to be extended, 11 

Order in establishment of, 13 

Reverend waiting recommended, 10 

MEETING FUNDS, Chapter on, 66 

Monthly and Preparative Meetings should maintain, . 67 

Quarterly Meetings, quotas of, 66 

Re- arrangement of quotas of, 66 

Yearly Meeting, to be annually raised, 66 

MEMBERS IN NEED, Chapter on, 68 

Advice and relief to be extended to, 68 

Children of, to be educated, 68 

Children of, to be aided, 53 

Circumstances of, not to be exposed, 68 

Monthly Meetings to have committee on, 68 

MEMBERSHIP, Chapter on, 31 

Application for, children one parent a member, ... 31 

by birthright, 31 

Frequent attenders, not members, to have loving 

attention, 33 

Monthly Meetings may discontinue, after five years' 

neglect, 99 

of children whose parents are members, 31 

One parent a member, 31 

Order of procedure, in application for, 32 

Qualifications of applicants for, 33 

Termination of, by resignation, 103 

128 INDEX. 


Membership — Continued. 

Where recorded, when parents members of different 

monthly meetings, 31 

without respect to nation or color, 33 

MEMORIALS, Chapter on, 109 

Duties of Representative Committee concerning, . . 17 

MINISTERS, early led to meet together, . 19 

Assistance of, for religious visits, 24,25 

Minutes of, where returned, 25 

Public opposition to, admonished, 25 

Recommendation of, 22 

Visits of, beyond Quarterly Meeting, 23 

beyond sea, 24 

beyond Yearly Meeting, 24 

who have lost service, procedure concerning, .... 26 


Advice to, 28 

Meetings of, not to interfere with meetings for discipline, 22 

Preparative meetings of, 21 

Quarterly meetings of, 21 

Queries for meetings of, 27 

Queries of, to be read and answered, 21 

Representatives to be appointed, 22 

Watchful care of, over membership, 21 

.Ministry, founded on human authority, testimony against, . . 35 

See The Gospel Ministry, 35 

Moderation, see Plainness, .°>< s 

Monuments, costly or showy, not allowed, 70 

Moral law, Breaches "of, a ground for disownment, .... 106 

Narcotics, see Intoxicants and Narcotics, 44 

See Particular Advices, ............. 74 

INDEX. 129 


Non-attendance of meetings, without sufficient cause, a ground 

for disownment, 106 

OATHS, Chapter on, 42 

Affirmations to be encouraged, 43 

Offices requiring administration of, to be avoided, . . 43 

See 9th Query, 79 

Testimony against, to be maintained, 42 

OVERSEERS, Chapter on, 29 

Advised frequently to meet together, 30 

Appointment directed, 29 

Duties of, 29, 30 

should be seasonably changed, 30 

when appointed, not hastily to excuse themselves, . . 30 


Assistance by those able to those less affluent, .... 53 

Children exhorted to simplicity, etc., 52 

Children to be placed with Friends, 52 

Habits of industry for children advised, 52 

Parents' care for children, ' . . . . 51 

Rights of children, when parent marries, 83 

See Marriage, 81, 82, 89 

Vanities, etc., children advised against, 51 


On careful investment of trust funds, 75 

On conducting the affairs of our meetings, ..... 71 

On inordinate love and pursuit of worldly riches, . . 72 
On inspection of outward affairs and the disposition of 

estates, 76 

On intoxicants and narcotics, 74 

On marriage, 74 

On moderation and simplicity, 73 

130 [NDEX. 


P lrticulab A DVICE8 — Continued. 

( )n amusements 73 

On strict application of gifts and legacies 75 

On timely care in renewal of trusts 75 

On waiting in stillness for renewal of strength, ... 72 

When and where to be read, 71 

Peace, Friends' belief concerning, 54 

PLAINNESS, Chapter on, 38 

Immoderation in lawful things, caution against, ... 39 

Plain way and manner of living advised, 56 

See 4th Query, 77 

to be manifested in conversation, apparel, etc., . . . 38 

Preparative meetings, subordination of, to monthly meetings, . 12 

not enjoined where members same as monthly meeting, 13 
(Queries need not be read in, where membership same 

as monthly meeting, 77 

Use and design of, 93 

not to consider proposals of marriage, 93 

Principle of Friends, Fundamental, 7 


Chapter on, 92 

Business to be carefully and promptly dispatched, . . 92 
Cases of difficulty, advice of quarterly meeting may be 

asked, . * 99 

Certificates of removal, 93 

Certificates of visiting Friends to be read in Yearly 

Meeting, 102 

Committee on epistles, directions to, 102 

Committees in, annually, to propose clerk- of, .... 92 

Copies of papers ad vised to be granted, 99 

Correspondents to be appointed, 100 

INDEX. 131 


Procedure in Meetings for Discipline — Continued. 

Correspondence with distant members, 98 

Dealing with offenders, 96 

Duties of correspondents, 100 

Extracts to be sent down, 102 

Letters or papers, except from meetings regularly cor- 
responding, to be examined, 102 

Members under dealing not to sit in, 96 

Offenders at a distance, 97 

Plain and correct records of, to be kept, ...... 92 

Preparative meetings, duties of, 93 

Representatives, their duties, 100 

Transgressors to be admonished in love and charity, 99 

When not held together, 93 

QUERIES, Chapter on, 76 

Summary answers to, to be forwarded, 76 

When and where to be read and answered, 76 

1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 77 

5th, 6th, 7th, 78 

8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 79 

13th, 14th, 80 


ELDERS, Chapter on, 27, 28 


RECORDS, Chapter on, 110 

Form of record recommended, Ill 

Recorder of births, deaths, etc., to be appointed, . . 110 

to be deposited in places of safety, 112 

to be kept by all meetings for business, 110 

of marriages, 88, 112 

13- INPKX. 


Religious principles, convincement of our, a qualification 

for membership, 33 

Removal, certificate of, 93 

Certificate to be asked, 95 

Minors or apprentices, 95 

Caution as to, 96 


How appointed, 15 

Others permitted to sit with, 18 

Rules regulating meetings, 15, 16 

Services confided to, 16,17 

Vacancies in, how supplied, 18 

Representatives, see Procedure in Meetings for Discipline, . 100 

Representatives, duties of, 101 

RESIGNATIONS, Chapter on, 103 

Procedure as to, 103 

When may be accepted, 103 

Riches, worldly, caution against inordinate desire for, ... 55 

Rights of Children, when parent marries, 83 

SECRET SOCIETIES, Chapter on, 47 

Advice to overseers concerning, 47 

Connection with, cautioned against, 47 

SCHOOLS, Chapter on, 63 

Committees to be appointed, . . 64 

First-day Schools recommended, 64 

Friends as teachers of, 64 

Funds to be raised, 64 

INDEX. 133 


Schools — Continued. 

Quarterly, Monthly and Preparative Meetings incited 

to support, 63 

See 11 tli and 12th Queries, 79 

SCRIPTURES, THE, Chapter on, 53 

Reading of encouraged, 53 

See Books, 65 

See Conduct and Conversation, 50 

Simplicity, see Plainness, 38 

enjoined by the Gospel, 38 

upheld by our fathers, 39 

Sorcery, 49 

Statistical returns to be sent up with answer to 11th and 

12th Queries, (note), 80 

Suffering members, advice or aid by Representative Com- 
mittee, 17 

Sufferings, accounts of to be sent up, 100 

Teachers, Friends recommended as, 64 

Tobacco, advice against, v . 45 

Cultivation, manufacture and sale of, 45 

See Particular Advices, • . 74 

TRADE, Chapter on, 55 

Accounts to be kept clearly and accurately, .... 57 
Advice not to launch out in, beyond abilities, .... 56 
Advice not to venture upon business not well under- 
stood, 56 

Affairs to be frequently inspected, 57 

Assignments to be without condition, 58 

Caution against inordinate desire for worldly riches, 55 

Caution as to corporations, 58 

134 INDEX. 

Trade ( lontinued. 

Caution concerning hazardous enterprises 56 

( Contracts to be kept 56 

Creditors to be consulted in assignments, when practi- 
cable, 58 

Engagements should be bounded by means, .... 56 

In failing circumstances, Friends to be consulted, . . 57 

Joint obligations, caution against, 59 

Just debts to be paid, notwithstanding legal release, 58 

Monthly meeting action in insolvency, 57 

. Overseers may inform monthly meeting concerning 

Friends insolvent, 57 

Subscriptions, etc., not to be received from persons 

insolvent, 58 

Those in danger of failure to be advised, 57 

Trustees and assignees advised, 58 


Recording of conveyances, etc., 67 

Representative Committee may advise concerning, . . 16 

See Particular Advices, 75 

to be seasonably renewed, . 67 

Trustees, and assignees, advice to, 58 

to be seasonably appointed, 67 

Wagering, see Gaming and Diversions, 46 

WAR, Chapter on, 40 

Arbitration, between nations, 42 

Faithful testimony against, 40 

Preparations for, caution against participation in, . . 41 

Trade or business promotive of, to be avoided, ... 41 

INDEX. 135 


WILLS, Chapter on, 62 

Ancient advice concerning renewed, 62 

Disposition of property by, to be considered, .... 62 

See Particular Advices, 75 

should be drawn by competent persons, 63 

Worship, acceptable, how performed, 35 

and prayers, acceptable to God, 36 

YEARLY MEETING, Chapter on, 9 

Certificates of visiting Friends to be read in, .... 102 

Committee on Epistles-, duties of, 102 

Extracts from Proceedings of, to be sent down, ... 102 

History of, 9 

of Ministers and Elders, when held, 9 

Relation to subordinate meetings, 12 

to hear cases of appeal, 108 


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